Prevention of Hemodynamic Instability in Extra-Cranial Carotid Angioplasty and Stenting Using Temporary Transvenous Cardiac Pacemaker
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- Liu, J., Yao, G., Zhou, H. et al. Cell Biochem Biophys (2013) 65: 275. doi:10.1007/s12013-012-9429-z
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Hemodynamic instability is a common condition during extra-cranial carotid angioplasty and stenting (CAS). We evaluated the safety and efficacy of prophylactic placement of temporary cardiac pacemaker during extra-cranial CAS for the prevention of hemodynamic instability. For this, forty-seven carotid artery stents were deployed in 41 high-risk patients. Temporary transvenous cardiac pacemakers were inserted before CAS procedure. The pacers were set to capture a heart rate <60 bpm. Clinical symptoms, blood pressure, heart rate, and pacing activation were monitored and data were collected. We found that pacing occurred in 25 carotid lesions during balloon predilatation; pacemakers were activated transiently in 25 patients. The longest pacing continued for 1 day. Among cases with pacemaker activation, 1 patient developed post-procedural symptomatic hypotension that lasted for 4 days. No related complications were observed. It was, therefore, concluded that pacing was technically effective in producing electrical ventricular responses and was hemodynamically effective in 25 carotid lesions which underwent balloon predilatation. The prophylactic use of a temporary transvenous cardiac pacemaker during CAS was rapid and effective in controlling peri-operative hemodynamic instability and preventing stroke and other complications. The prophylactic use of temporary pacemaker is particularly recommended for patients at high risk for developing hemodynamic instability.