Regulation of Endocytic Sorting by ESCRT–DUB-Mediated Deubiquitination
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- Wright, M.H., Berlin, I. & Nash, P.D. Cell Biochem Biophys (2011) 60: 39. doi:10.1007/s12013-011-9181-9
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Endocytosis of cell surface receptors mediates cellular homeostasis by coordinating receptor distribution with downstream signal transduction and attenuation. Post-translational modification with ubiquitin of these receptors, as well as the proteins that comprise the endocytic machinery, modulates cargo progression along the endocytic pathway. The interplay between ubiquitination states of cargo and sorting proteins drives trafficking outcomes by directing endocytosed material toward either lysosomal degradation or recycling. Deubiquitination by specific proteinases creates a reversible system that promotes spatial and temporal organization of endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRTs) and supports regulated cargo trafficking. Two dubiquitinating enzymes—ubiquitin-specific protease 8 (USP8/Ubpy) and associated molecule with the SH3 domain of STAM (AMSH)—interact with ESCRT components to modulate the ubiquitination status of receptors and relevant sorting proteins. In doing so, these ESCRT–DUBs control receptor fate and sorting complex function through a variety of mechanisms described herein.