Cardiovascular Toxicology

, Volume 13, Issue 3, pp 220–229

Cardiovascular Autophagy: Crossroads of Pathology, Pharmacology and Toxicology

Authors

  • Joshua K. Salabei
    • Department of Medicine, Diabetes and Obesity CenterUniversity of Louisville
    • Department of Biochemistry and Molecular BiologyUniversity of Louisville School of Medicine
    • Department of Medicine, Diabetes and Obesity CenterUniversity of Louisville
    • Institute of Molecular CardiologyUniversity of Louisville School of Medicine
Article

DOI: 10.1007/s12012-013-9200-8

Cite this article as:
Salabei, J.K. & Conklin, D.J. Cardiovasc Toxicol (2013) 13: 220. doi:10.1007/s12012-013-9200-8

Abstract

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of death worldwide, despite the significant advances in medicine. Autophagy, a process of self-cannibalization employed by mammalian cells for the recycling of cellular contents, is altered not only in a number of CVDs, but in other diseases, as well. Many FDA-approved drugs are known to induce autophagy-mediated side effects in the cardiovascular system. In some cases, such drug-induced autophagy could be harnessed and used for treating CVD, greatly reducing the duration and cost of CVD treatments. However, because the induction of autophagy in cardiovascular targets can be both adaptive and maladaptive under specific settings, the challenge is to determine whether the changes stimulated by drug-induced autophagy are, in fact, beneficial. In this review, we surveyed a number of CVDs in which autophagy is known to occur, and we also address the role of FDA-approved drugs for which autophagy-mediated side effects occur within the cardiovascular system. The therapeutic potential of using small molecule modulators of autophagy in the management of CVD progression is discussed.

Keywords

AutophagyCardiovascular diseaseDrug-eluting stentsLC3RapamycinVerapamil

Abbreviations

VSMC

Vascular smooth muscle cells

Spautin 1

Specific and potent inhibitor of autophagy 1

3-MA

3-methyl adenine

CVD

Cardiovascular disease

mTOR

Mammalian target of rapamycin

ATG

Autophagy-related

TAC

Trans-aortic constriction

ECG

Electrocardiogram

POAF

Post-operative atrial fibrillation

AAA

Abdominal aortic aneurysm

DES

Drug-eluting stent

MI

Myocardial infarction

FDA

Food and Drug Administration

LVAD

Left ventricular assist device

eNOS

Endothelial nitric oxide synthase

ULK1

UNC-like kinase 1

ECM

Extracellular matrix

AMPK

AMP-activated protein kinase

LC3

Microtubule-associated protein light chain 3

TKI

Tyrosine kinase inhibitor

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013