Arsenic Trioxide Toxicity in H9c2 Myoblasts—Damage to Cell Organelles and Possible Amelioration with Boerhavia diffusa
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Arsenic trioxide (ATO) has been long used as a chemotherapeutic agent because of its significant anticancer property. Unfortunately, the use of ATO is limited due to its cardiotoxic effects. The present study evaluates the protective property of ethanolic extract of Boerhavia diffusa (BDE) against ATO-induced toxicity on various cell organelles in H9c2 cardiomyocytes. The effects of different concentrations of ATO (5, 7.5 and 10 μM) on cell organelles like mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum (ER), lysosome and actin, generation of reactive oxygen species, antioxidant enzyme status and intracellular calcium overload were evaluated. ATO significantly (P ≤ 0.05) altered mitochondrial transmembrane potential, intracellular calcium level, ER, lysosomal activity and F-actin network in addition to induction of oxidative stress. Co-treatment with BDE protected the cardiomyocytes from the adverse effects of ATO, especially at 5 μM concentration, which was evident from decreased activity of lactate dehydrogenase (5 μM ATO + 20 μg/mL BDE: 6.61 ± 1.97 μU/mL, respective control group: 16.15 ± 1.92 μU/mL), reduced oxidative stress, calcium influx and organelle damage. Results obtained from the present study allow for a better characterization of the effects of ATO on H9c2 myoblasts. In conclusion, our data suggest that cell organelles are also the targets of ATO-induced cardiotoxicity in addition to other reported targets like ion channels, and BDE has the potential to protect the cardiotoxicity induced by ATO.
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- Arsenic Trioxide Toxicity in H9c2 Myoblasts—Damage to Cell Organelles and Possible Amelioration with Boerhavia diffusa
Volume 13, Issue 2 , pp 123-137
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- Arsenic trioxide
- Boerhavia diffusa
- Intracellular calcium
- Oxidative stress
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- Author Affiliations
- 1. Agroprocessing and Natural Products Division, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research-National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology (CSIR-NIIST), Thiruvananthapuram, 695019, Kerala, India