Protective Effects of Rutin on Mitochondrial Damage in Isoproterenol-Induced Cardiotoxic Rats: An In Vivo and In Vitro Study
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- Punithavathi, V.R., Shanmugapriya, K. & Stanely Mainzen Prince, P. Cardiovasc Toxicol (2010) 10: 181. doi:10.1007/s12012-010-9077-8
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Consumption of diets rich in flavonoids is associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases such as myocardial infarction. Cardiotoxicity was induced in rats by subcutaneous injection of isoproterenol at an interval of 24 h for 2 days. Isoproterenol-induced rats showed a significant increase in the levels of heart mitochondrial lipids, lipid peroxidation products, calcium and a significant decrease in the activities/levels of mitochondrial antioxidants, enzymes and adenosine triphosphate. Isoproterenol-induced rats also showed an increase in the intensities of serum lactate dehydrogenase-1 and 2 isoenzyme bands. Pretreatment with rutin at the dose of 80 mg/kg daily for 42 days to isoproterenol-induced rats prevented all the biochemical alterations. Transmission electron microscopic study also confirmed the protective effects of rutin on the structure of heart mitochondria. Thus, rutin reduced the extent of mitochondrial damage induced by isoproterenol and prevented cardiac mitochondrial dysfunction. The possible mechanisms for the observed effects of rutin could be due to scavenging free radicals, lowering lipid peroxides, lipids and calcium, improving multienzyme activities, glutathione levels, adenosine triphosphate levels, thereby improving cardiac mitochondrial structure and function. This study may have a significant impact on myocardial infarcted patients.