Biological Trace Element Research

, Volume 156, Issue 1, pp 96–110

Effects of Feeding Selenium-Enriched Alfalfa Hay on Immunity and Health of Weaned Beef Calves

Authors

    • Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary MedicineOregon State University
  • Gerd Bobe
    • Department of Animal and Rangeland Sciences, College of Agricultural SciencesOregon State University
    • Linus Pauling InstituteOregon State University
  • William R. Vorachek
    • Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary MedicineOregon State University
  • Hugejiletu
    • Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary MedicineOregon State University
    • College of Veterinary MedicineInner Mongolian Agricultural University
  • M. Elena Gorman
    • Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary MedicineOregon State University
  • Wayne D. Mosher
    • Department of Animal and Rangeland Sciences, College of Agricultural SciencesOregon State University
  • Gene J. Pirelli
    • Department of Animal and Rangeland Sciences, College of Agricultural SciencesOregon State University
Article

DOI: 10.1007/s12011-013-9843-0

Cite this article as:
Hall, J.A., Bobe, G., Vorachek, W.R. et al. Biol Trace Elem Res (2013) 156: 96. doi:10.1007/s12011-013-9843-0

Abstract

Previously, we reported that feeding selenium (Se)-enriched forage improves antibody titers in mature beef cows, and whole-blood Se concentrations and growth rates in weaned beef calves. Our current objective was to test whether beef calves fed Se-enriched alfalfa hay during the transition period between weaning and movement to a feedlot also have improved immune responses and slaughter weights. Recently weaned beef calves (n = 60) were fed an alfalfa-hay-based diet for 7 weeks, which was harvested from fields fertilized with sodium selenate at 0, 22.5, 45.0, or 89.9 g Se/ha. All calves were immunized with J-5 Escherichia coli bacterin. Serum was collected for antibody titers 2 weeks after the third immunization. Whole-blood neutrophils collected at 6 or 7 weeks were evaluated for total antioxidant potential, bacterial killing activity, and expression of genes associated with selenoproteins and innate immunity. Calves fed the highest versus the lowest level of Se-enriched alfalfa hay had higher antibody titers (P = 0.02), thioredoxin reductase-2 mRNA levels (P = 0.07), and a greater neutrophil total antioxidant potential (P = 0.10), whereas mRNA levels of interleukin-8 receptor (P = 0.02), l-selectin (P = 0.07), and thioredoxin reductase-1 (P = 0.07) were lower. In the feedlot, calves previously fed the highest-Se forage had lower mortality (P = 0.04) and greater slaughter weights (P = 0.02). Our results suggest that, in areas with low-forage Se concentrations, feeding beef calves Se-enriched alfalfa hay during the weaning transition period improves vaccination responses and subsequent growth and survival in the feedlot.

Keywords

Gene expressionJ-5 Escherichia coli antibody titerMorbidity and mortalityNeutrophil killing assayPerformanceSelenium supplementationWeaned beef calves

Abbreviations

ACTB

Beta-actin

ADG

Average daily gain

BIRC2

Baculoviral IAP repeat-containing protein 2

BP

Base pairs

BW

Body weight

CASP4

Caspase 4

CFU

Colony-forming units

CRE

Copper-reducing equivalents

Dio

Iodothyronine deiodinases

DMSO

Dimethyl sulfoxide

FBS

Fetal bovine serum

FDA

Food and Drug Administration

FOS

FBJ murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog or c-FOS, and a member of the activator protein-1 family

GAPDH

Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase

GPx

Glutathione peroxidases

HBSS

Hank’s balanced saline solution

ICE

Interleukin 1β converting enzyme

IFN-γ

Interferon-gamma

IL-2

Interleukin 2

IL-8R

Interleukin-8 receptor

l-Sel

l-Selectin

MOI

Multiplicity of infection

NETs

Neutrophil extracellular traps

NFκB

Nuclear factor kappa B

PBS

Phosphate-buffered saline

PPM1A

Protein phosphatase magnesium-dependent 1A

qPCR

Quantitative polymerase chain reaction

RBC

Red blood cells

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

RPL19

Ribosomal protein large subunit family member-19

SDHA

Succinate dehydrogenase complex, subunit A

Se

Selenium

SeMet

Selenomethionine

SEP

Selenoproteins

TBK1

TANK-binding kinase 1

TLR4

Toll-like receptor 4

TMB

3,3’,5,5’-Tetramethyl-benzidine

TNF-α

Tumor necrosis factor α

TrxR

Thioredoxin reductases

WB

Whole-blood

YWHAZ

Tyrosine 3-monoxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, zeta polypeptide

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013