, Volume 139, Issue 3, pp 241-256

Release of Metal Ions from Orthodontic Appliances by In Vitro Studies: A Systematic Literature Review

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Abstract

In the present work, a systematic literature review on release of metal ions from orthodontic appliances under in vitro conditions is described. Detailed and schematic analysis of used materials and applied methods (immersion media, incubation time, temperature, and analytical techniques) is provided. The PubMed search identified 40 studies, among which eight met the selection criteria. One additional study was included in the review. All the authors agreed that the doses of released metal ions were far below the toxic level and the dietary intake. Although the concentrations of metal ions in immersion media greatly differed, the general conclusions were coherent. It must be underlined that the main disadvantage of in vitro tests was that the experimental setup did not reflect in vivo conditions, e.g., the presence of biofilm, which grows on the surface of the materials in oral cavity. The presence and activity of microflora to a large extent is responsible for the process of corrosion, in particular, biodeterioration. The further scheme of in vitro research should incorporate changeable conditions of oral cavity environment (pH, dynamic conditions—saliva flow) and the presence of microbiological flora (microbiological attack) in the experimental design and, first of all, the real proportions of appliance elements.