The present study was aimed to determine the effect of iron supplementation on levels of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) in patients with iron deficiency anemia (IDA). In this study, 26 female patients diagnosed with iron deficiency were treated approximately 3 months of oral iron supplementation (99 ± 10 days; ferrous glycine sulfate; 100 mg/day of elemental iron). Levels of sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 were assessed prior to treatment and after approximately 3 months of treatment and compared with 26 healthy female subjects. A significant increase in sVCAM levels was found in the patients with iron deficiency at the end of the treatment relative to pretreatment levels compared to controls, whereas no significant differences were determined in sICAM levels. In the posttreatment period, no significant change was observed in sICAM levels compared to the pretreatment levels, whereas sVCAM levels decreased. However, after the treatment period, the sVCAM, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), and serum ferritin levels did not return to the normal range compared to the controls. Pretreatment sVCAM-1 levels were inversely correlated with levels of hemoglobin, hemotocrit, MCV, serum iron, and ferritin. After treatment, the sVCAM-1 levels were negatively correlated with ferritin levels. Levels of sVCAM were significantly higher in patients with IDA than controls. After the treatment period, the sVCAM levels were not completely normalized in patients with IDA compared to controls, regardless of the presence of inadequate levels of hemoglobin, MCV, and serum ferritin. Thus, iron supplementation not only ameliorates anemia, but may also reduce the inflammation markers in cases with IDA.