Trace Metal Release from Orthodontic Appliances by In Vivo Studies: A Systematic Literature Review
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- Mikulewicz, M. & Chojnacka, K. Biol Trace Elem Res (2010) 137: 127. doi:10.1007/s12011-009-8576-6
The paper discusses various approaches used to investigate biocompatibility by the analysis of metals release by the materials of which orthodontic appliances are made. Analysis of various biomarkers of exposure: saliva, serum, mucosa cells, or urine is used in in vivo tests. In this work, the techniques, results, and conclusions of original papers were compared by the implementation of the concept of a systematic review. The aim of the present work was to report the state-of-the-art in the research on methods used to assess exposure to trace metals from orthodontic appliances. The PubMed search identified 35 studies, among which nine met the selection criteria. The general conclusion in the studies was that metal ions were released mostly in the initial stage of the treatment. However, the majority of studies included 1–2 months long period and did not reflect long-term changes nor the impact of the complete treatment, the duration of which is several years, on the whole organism and the overall accumulation of metals from orthodontic appliances. In studies which evaluated nickel concentrations in blood and urine, long-term metal release was detected and significant differences were found. It leads to the conclusion that nickel ions are released from orthodontic appliances in measurable amounts to human organism.