Effects of Gestational Cadmium Exposure on Pregnancy Outcome and Development in the Offspring at Age 4.5 Years
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- Tian, LL., Zhao, YC., Wang, XC. et al. Biol Trace Elem Res (2009) 132: 51. doi:10.1007/s12011-009-8391-0
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The objective of the present study was to evaluate the potential effect of maternal cadmium exposure on pregnancy outcome and development in the offspring at age 4.5 years. Between November 2002 and December 2003, 109 normal pregnant women were enrolled in our cohort from Da-Ye Country, Hubei Province in Central China. The placental, whole blood, and cord blood levels of cadmium were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). The 106 children at 4.5 years of age given birth by the aforementioned women were followed up and the following rate was 97.25%. Detailed questionnaire surveys, anthropometric measurements were performed, and IQ development was evaluated by Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence Revised Edition (WPPSI-R). Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that cord blood cadmium level was significantly negatively correlated with fetus development. Low birth weight (less than 2,500 g) occurred significantly more frequently in infants with higher cord blood cadmium than in those exposed to lower levels of cord blood cadmium. Significantly negative correlation was found between cord blood cadmium exposure and WPPSI-R IQ full score after controlling for confounding variables. It was concluded that cord blood cadmium concentration was a factor that influenced fetus growth and later IQ development.