Effects of Gestational Cadmium Exposure on Pregnancy Outcome and Development in the Offspring at Age 4.5 Years
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the potential effect of maternal cadmium exposure on pregnancy outcome and development in the offspring at age 4.5 years. Between November 2002 and December 2003, 109 normal pregnant women were enrolled in our cohort from Da-Ye Country, Hubei Province in Central China. The placental, whole blood, and cord blood levels of cadmium were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). The 106 children at 4.5 years of age given birth by the aforementioned women were followed up and the following rate was 97.25%. Detailed questionnaire surveys, anthropometric measurements were performed, and IQ development was evaluated by Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence Revised Edition (WPPSI-R). Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that cord blood cadmium level was significantly negatively correlated with fetus development. Low birth weight (less than 2,500 g) occurred significantly more frequently in infants with higher cord blood cadmium than in those exposed to lower levels of cord blood cadmium. Significantly negative correlation was found between cord blood cadmium exposure and WPPSI-R IQ full score after controlling for confounding variables. It was concluded that cord blood cadmium concentration was a factor that influenced fetus growth and later IQ development.
- Staessen, J. A., Vyncke, G., Lauwerys, R. R., Roels, H. A., Celis, H. G., Claeys, F., Dondeyne, F., Fagard, R. H., Ide, G., Lijnen, P. J., and et al. Transfer of cadmium from a sandy acidic soil to man: a population study. Environ Res, 58: 25–34, 1992.
- Nampoothiri, L. P. and Gupta, S. Biochemical effects of gestational coexposure to lead and cadmium on reproductive performance, placenta, and ovary. J Biochem Mol Toxicol, 22: 337–344, 2008. CrossRef
- Kuriwaki, J., Nishijo, M., Honda, R., Tawara, K., Nakagawa, H., Hori, E., and Nishijo, H. Effects of cadmium exposure during pregnancy on trace elements in fetal rat liver and kidney. Toxicol Lett, 156: 369–376, 2005. CrossRef
- Jarup, L., Berglund, M., Elinder, C. G., Nordberg, G., and Vahter, M. Health effects of cadmium exposure—a review of the literature and a risk estimate. Scand J Work Environ Health, 24 Suppl 1: 1–51, 1998.
- Slotkin, T. A., Kavlock, R. J., Cowdery, T., Orband, L., Bartolome, M., Gray, J. A., Rehnberg, B. F., and Bartolome, J. Functional consequences of prenatal methylmercury exposure: effects on renal and hepatic responses to trophic stimuli and on renal excretory mechanisms. Toxicol Lett, 34: 231–245, 1986. CrossRef
- Nagymajtenyi, L., Schulz, H., and Desi, I. Behavioural and functional neurotoxicological changes caused by cadmium in a three-generational study in rats. Hum Exp Toxicol, 16: 691–699, 1997. CrossRef
- Shen, H. M., Dong, S. Y., and Ong, C. N. Critical role of calcium overloading in cadmium-induced apoptosis in mouse thymocytes. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol, 171: 12–19, 2001. CrossRef
- Sorell, T. L. and Graziano, J. H. Effect of oral cadmium exposure during pregnancy on maternal and fetal zinc metabolism in the rat. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol, 102: 537–545, 1990. CrossRef
- Christensen, M. M., Keith, I., Rhodes, P. R., Graziano, F. M., Madsen, P. O., Bruskewitz, R. C., and Saban, R. A guinea pig model for study of bladder mast cell function: histamine release and smooth muscle contraction. J Urol, 144: 1293–1300, 1990.
- Kuhnert, P. M., Kuhnert, B. R., Bottoms, S. F., and Erhard, P. Cadmium levels in maternal blood, fetal cord blood, and placental tissues of pregnant women who smoke. Am J Obstet Gynecol, 142: 1021–1025, 1982.
- Kuhnert, B. R., Kuhnert, P. M., Debanne, S., and Williams, T. G. The relationship between cadmium, zinc, and birth weight in pregnant women who smoke. Am J Obstet Gynecol, 157: 1247–1251, 1987.
- Kuhnert, P. M., Kuhnert, B. R., Erhard, P., Brashear, W. T., Groh-Wargo, S. L., and Webster, S. The effect of smoking on placental and fetal zinc status. Am J Obstet Gynecol, 157: 1241–1246, 1987.
- Laudanski, T., Sipowicz, M., Modzelewski, P., Bolinski, J., Szamatowicz, J., Razniewska, G., and Akerlund, M. Influence of high lead and cadmium soil content on human reproductive outcome. Int J Gynaecol Obstet, 36: 309–315, 1991. CrossRef
- Nishijo, M., Nakagawa, H., Honda, R., Tanebe, K., Saito, S., Teranishi, H., and Tawara, K. Effects of maternal exposure to cadmium on pregnancy outcome and breast milk. Occup Environ Med, 59: 394–396; discussion 397, 2002.
- Grandjean, P., Budtz-Jorgensen, E., Jorgensen, P. J., and Weihe, P. Umbilical cord mercury concentration as biomarker of prenatal exposure to methylmercury. Environ Health Perspect, 113: 905–908, 2005. CrossRef
- Zhang, Y. L., Zhao, Y. C., Wang, J. X., Zhu, H. D., Liu, Q. F., Fan, Y. G., Wang, N. F., Zhao, J. H., Liu, H. S., Ou-Yang, L., Liu, A. P., and Fan, T. Q. Effect of environmental exposure to cadmium on pregnancy outcome and fetal growth: a study on healthy pregnant women in China. J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng, 39: 2507–2515, 2004. CrossRef
- Carvajal, H. H., Parks, J. P., Bays, K. J., Logan, R. A., Lujano, C. I., Page, G. L., and Weaver, K. A. Relationships between scores on Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence—revised and Stanford-Binet IV. Psychol Rep, 69: 23-26, 1991. CrossRef
- Huel, G., Boudene, C., and Ibrahim, M. A. Cadmium and lead content of maternal and newborn hair: relationship to parity, birth weight, and hypertension. Arch Environ Health, 36: 221–227, 1981.
- Sikorski, R., Radomanski, T., Paszkowski, T., and Skoda, J. Smoking during pregnancy and the perinatal cadmium burden. J Perinat Med, 16: 225–231, 1988. CrossRef
- Kostrzewska, A., Laudanski, T., and Bergelin, I. Influence of cadmium ions on the reactivity of isolated human uterine arteries. J Toxicol Environ Health, 34: 187–195, 1991. CrossRef
- Berlin, M., Blanks, R., Catton, M., Kazantzis, G., Mottet, N. K., and Samiullah, Y. Birth weight of children and cadmium accumulation in placentas of female nickel-cadmium (long-life) battery workers. IARC Sci Publ: 257–262, 1992.
- Odland, J. O., Nieboer, E., Romanova, N., Thomassen, Y., and Lund, E. Blood lead and cadmium and birth weight among sub-arctic and arctic populations of Norway and Russia. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand, 78: 852–860, 1999. CrossRef
- Baranowska, I. Lead and cadmium in human placentas and maternal and neonatal blood (in a heavily polluted area) measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Occup Environ Med, 52: 229–232, 1995. CrossRef
- Osman, K., Akesson, A., Berglund, M., Bremme, K., Schutz, A., Ask, K., and Vahter, M. Toxic and essential elements in placentas of Swedish women. Clin Biochem, 33: 131–138, 2000. CrossRef
- Baghurst, P. A., Robertson, E. F., Oldfield, R. K., King, B. M., McMichael, A. J., Vimpani, G. V., and Wigg, N. R. Lead in the placenta, membranes, and umbilical cord in relation to pregnancy outcome in a lead-smelter community. Environ Health Perspect, 90: 315–320, 1991. CrossRef
- Semczuk, M. and Semczuk-Sikora, A. New data on toxic metal intoxication (Cd, Pb, and Hg in particular) and Mg status during pregnancy. Med Sci Monit, 7: 332–340, 2001.
- Wright, R. O., Amarasiriwardena, C., Woolf, A. D., Jim, R., and Bellinger, D. C. Neuropsychological correlates of hair arsenic, manganese, and cadmium levels in school-age children residing near a hazardous waste site. Neurotoxicology, 27: 210–216, 2006. CrossRef
- Wasserman, G. A., Liu, X., Popovac, D., Factor-Litvak, P., Kline, J., Waternaux, C., LoIacono, N., and Graziano, J. H. The Yugoslavia Prospective Lead Study: contributions of prenatal and postnatal lead exposure to early intelligence. Neurotoxicol Teratol, 22: 811–818, 2000. CrossRef
- Ris, M. D., Dietrich, K. N., Succop, P. A., Berger, O. G., and Bornschein, R. L. Early exposure to lead and neuropsychological outcome in adolescence. J Int Neuropsychol Soc, 10: 261–270, 2004. CrossRef
- Needleman, H. L., Leviton, A., and Bellinger, D. Lead-associated intellectual deficit. N Engl J Med, 306: 367, 1982.
- Faust, D. and Brown, J. Moderately elevated blood lead levels: effects on neuropsychologic functioning in children. Pediatrics, 80: 623–629, 1987.
- Effects of Gestational Cadmium Exposure on Pregnancy Outcome and Development in the Offspring at Age 4.5 Years
Biological Trace Element Research
Volume 132, Issue 1-3 , pp 51-59
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Humana Press Inc
- Additional Links
- Cord blood cadmium
- Pregnancy outcomes
- Industry Sectors