Characterization of β-Galactosidase Isoforms from Bacillus circulans and Their Contribution to GOS Production
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- Warmerdam, A., Paudel, E., Jia, W. et al. Appl Biochem Biotechnol (2013) 170: 340. doi:10.1007/s12010-013-0181-7
A β-galactosidase preparation from Bacillus circulans consists of four isoforms called β-gal-A, β-gal-B, β-gal-C, and β-gal-D. These isoforms differ in lactose hydrolysis and galacto-oligosaccharide (GOS) synthesis at low substrate concentrations. For this reason, using a selection of the isoforms may be relevant for GOS production, which is typically done at high substrate concentrations. At initial lactose concentrations in between 0.44 % and 0.68 % (w/w), β-gal-A showed the least oligosaccharide formation, followed by β-gal-B and β-gal-C; most oligosaccharides were formed by β-gal-D. The differences in behavior were confirmed by studying the thermodynamics of lactose conversion with isothermal titration calorimetry since especially β-gal-A showed a different profile than the other isoforms. Also during the conversion of allolactose and 4-galactosyllactose at 0.44 % and 0.61 % (w/w), respectively, β-gal-A and β-gal-D showed clear differences. In contrast to above findings, the selectivity of the isoforms did hardly differ at an initial lactose concentration of 30 % (w/w), except for a slightly higher production of galactose with β-gal-A. These differences were hypothesized to be related to the different accessibility of the active sites of the isoforms for different-sized reactants. The initial GOS formation rates of the isoforms indicate that β-gal-A and β-gal-B are the best isoforms for GOS production at high lactose concentrations.