, Volume 163, Issue 7, pp 869-881
Date: 23 Sep 2010

Characterization of a Defined Cellulolytic and Xylanolytic Bacterial Consortium for Bioprocessing of Cellulose and Hemicelluloses

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Abstract

Diminishing fossil fuel reserve and increasing cost of fossil hydrocarbon products have rekindled worldwide effort on conversion of lignocellloloses (plant biomass) to renewable fuel. Inedible plant materials such as grass, agricultural, and logging residues are abundant renewable natural resources that can be converted to biofuel. In an effort to mimic natural cellulolytic–xylanolytic microbial community in bioprocessing of lignocelluloses, we enriched cellulolytic–xylanolytic microorganisms, purified 19 monocultures and evaluated their cellulolytic–xylanolytic potential. Five selected isolates (DB1, DB2, DB7, DB8, and DB13) were used to compose a defined consortium and characterized by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence analysis. Nucleotide sequence blast analysis revealed that DB1, DB2, DB7, DB8, and DB13 were respectively similar to Pseudoxanthomonas byssovorax (99%), Microbacterium oxydans (99%), Bacillus sp. (99%), Ochrobactrum anthropi (98%), and Klebsiella trevisanii (99%). The isolates produced an array of cellulolytic–xylanolytic enzymes (filter paper cellulase, β-glucosidase, xylanase, and β-xylosidase), and significant activities were recorded in 30 min. Isolates DB1 and DB2 displayed the highest filter paper cellulase: 27.83 and 31.22 U mg−1, respectively. The highest β-glucosidase activity (18.07 U mg−1) was detected in the culture of isolate DB1. Isolate DB2 produced the highest xylanase activity (103.05 U mg−1), while the highest β-xylosidase activity (7.72 U mg−1) was observed with DB13. Use of microbial consortium in bioprocessing of lignocelluloses could reduce problems such as incomplete synergistic enzymes, end-product inhibition, adsorption, and requirement for high amounts of enzymes in direct use of enzymes.