Atmospheric Pressure Liquefaction of Dried Distillers Grains (DDG) and Making Polyurethane Foams from Liquefied DDG
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
In this study, dried distillers grains (DDG) was liquefied in acidic conditions at atmospheric pressure, and polyurethane foams were subsequently prepared from the liquefied DDG. Liquefaction was examined over a range of conditions including liquefaction time of 1–3 h, temperature of 150–170 °C, sulfuric acid (as catalyst) concentration of 1.0–3.0 wt%, and liquefaction solvent (ethylene carbonate) to DDG ratio of 3:1–5:1. The bio-polyols in the liquefied DDG were rich in hydroxyl groups, which can react with methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) to form cross-linked polyurethane networks. The biodegradability of the prepared polyurethane foams was also evaluated. This study strives to broaden the application of DDG as a feedstock for bio-polyurethane preparation.
- AURI. (2005). Distillers’ dried grains flowability report. Agricultural Utilization Research Institute Fuels Initiative. Online: http://www.auri.org/research/Flowability _summary_10_17_05.pdf.
- Karunanandaa, K., & Varga, G. A. (1996). Colonization of rice straw by white-rot fungi (Cyathus stercoreus): Effect on ruminal fermentation pattern, nitrogen metabolism, and fiber utilization during continuous culture. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 61, 1–16. CrossRef
- Yu, F., Ruan, R., Lin, X., Liu, Y., Fu, R., Li, Y., et al. (2006). Reaction kinetics of stover liquefaction in recycled stover polyol. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 129–132, 563–573. CrossRef
- Yamada, T, & Ono, H. (1999). Rapid liquefaction of lignocellulosic waste by using ethylene carbonate. Bioresource Technology, 70, 61–67. CrossRef
- Ravve, A. (2000). Principles of polymer chemistry (2nd ed., pp. 338). New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.
- Alma, M. H., Basturk, M. A., & Digrak, M. (2003). New polyurethane-type rigid foams from liquified wood powders. Journal of Materials Science Letters. Journal of Materials Science Letters, 22, 1225–1228. CrossRef
- Yao, Y. G., Yoshioka, M., & Shiraishi, N. (1995). Rigid polyurethane foams from combined liquefaction mixtures of wood and starch. Mokuzai Gakkaishi, 41, 659–668.
- Yao, Y. G., Yoshioka, M., & Shiraishi, N. (1996). Water-absorbing polyurethane foams from liquefied starch. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 60, 1939–1949. CrossRef
- Gomes, M. E., Ribeiro, A. S., Malafaya, P. B., Reis, R. L., & Cunha, A. M. (2001). A new approach based on injection moulding to produce biodegradable starchbased polymeric scaffolds: morphology, mechanical and degradation behavior. Biomaterials, 22, 883–889. CrossRef
- Atmospheric Pressure Liquefaction of Dried Distillers Grains (DDG) and Making Polyurethane Foams from Liquefied DDG
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Volume 148, Issue 1-3 , pp 235-243
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Humana Press Inc
- Additional Links
- Dried distillers grains
- Industry Sectors
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Department of Forest Products, Mississippi State University, Box 9820, Mississippi State, MS, 39762, USA
- 2. Center for Biorefining and Department of Bioproducts and Biosystems Engineering, University of Minnesota, 1390 Eckles Ave., St. Paul, MN, 55108, USA
- 3. Jiangxi Biomass Engineering Center, Nanchang University, Nanchang, China, 330047