Patient Selection Criteria for Periacetabular Osteotomy or Rotational Acetabular Osteotomy
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Hip dysplasia is the most common cause of secondary osteoarthritis (OA). Periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) or rotational acetabular osteotomy (RAO) has been used as a joint-preserving procedure. However, the patient selection criteria are not clearly defined.
Based on a systematic review, we identified reported patient selection criteria for PAO or RAO.
We performed a systematic review of RAO and 18 studies met our inclusion criteria. For the PAO, the systemic review performed by Clohisy et al. was used.
Where Are We Now?
For patients with symptomatic hip dysplasia, lateral center-edge angle less than 10° to 30°, radiographic pre- or early OA, mean age at the time of surgery of 18 to 45 years, and improvement in joint congruency on AP radiograph with hip abduction, radiographic deformity correction consistently improved hip function in all studies. Radiographic OA progression was noted in 5% to 33% at 3.2 to 20 years postoperatively. Clinical score and prevention of radiographic OA progression of patients 50 years or older or with advanced stage were worse in younger patients or those with early stage.
Where Do We Need to Go?
The key challenges are (1) preoperative evaluation of articular cartilage; (2) indication for older patients; (3) prevention of secondary femoroacetabular impingement; and (4) intraarticular treatment combined with PAO or RAO.
How Do We Get There?
Future prospective, longitudinal cohort studies need to determine optimal patient selection criteria, risk factors for clinical failure, optimal deformity correction parameters, and the role of adjunctive surgical procedures.
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