, Volume 470, Issue 9, pp 2605-2612
Date: 15 Mar 2012

Most Effective Regimen of Tranexamic Acid in Knee Arthroplasty: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Study in 240 Patients

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Abstract

Background

The antifibrinolytic tranexamic acid reduces surgical blood loss, but studies have not identified an optimal regimen.

Questions/purposes

We studied different dosages, timings, and modes of administration to identify the most effective regimen of tranexamic acid in achieving maximum reduction of blood loss in TKA.

Methods

We prospectively studied five regimens (four intravenous, one local; 40 patients each) with a control group (no tranexamic acid). The four intravenous (10-mg/kg dose) regimens included (1) intraoperative dose (IO) given before tourniquet deflation, (2) additional preoperative dose (POIO), (3) additional postoperative dose (IOPO), and (4) all three doses (POIOPO). The fifth regimen was a single local application (LA). Two independent parameters of drain loss and total blood loss, calculated by the hemoglobin balance method, were evaluated statistically.

Results

Both parameters were reduced in all five regimens as against the control. A significant reduction in drain loss was seen in the POIO, IOPO, and POIOPO groups whereas total blood loss was significantly reduced in the POIO, POIOPO, and LA groups. The POIOPO group had the least drain loss (303 mL) and least total blood loss (688 mL). The IO group had the greatest drain loss and the IOPO group the greatest total blood loss.

Conclusions

Single-dose tranexamic acid did not give effective results. The two-dose regimen of POIO was the least amount necessary for effective results. When compared against the control, this regimen produced reduction of drain loss and total blood loss, whereas the IOPO regimen did not. The three-dose regimen of POIOPO produced maximum effective reduction of drain loss and total blood loss.

Level of Evidence

Level I, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

Each author certifies that he or she, or a member of his or her immediate family, has no commercial associations (eg, consultancies, stock ownership, equity interest, patent/licensing arrangements, etc) that might pose a conflict of interest in connection with the submitted article.
All ICMJE Conflict of Interest Forms for authors and Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research editors and board members are on file with the publication and can be viewed on request.
Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research neither advocates nor endorses the use of any treatment, drug, or device. Readers are encouraged to always seek additional information, including FDA approval status, of any drug or device before clinical use.
Each author certifies that his or her institution approved the human protocol for this investigation, that all investigations were conducted in conformity with ethical principles of research, and that informed consent for participation in the study was obtained.
This work was conducted at Lilavati Hospital and Research Centre.