Maggot Excretions Inhibit Biofilm Formation on Biomaterials
Biofilm-associated infections in trauma surgery are difficult to treat with conventional therapies. Therefore, it is important to develop new treatment modalities. Maggots in captured bags, which are permeable for larval excretions/secretions, aid in healing severe, infected wounds, suspect for biofilm formation. Therefore we presumed maggot excretions/secretions would reduce biofilm formation.
We studied biofilm formation of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Klebsiella oxytoca, Enterococcus faecalis, and Enterobacter cloacae on polyethylene, titanium, and stainless steel. We compared the quantities of biofilm formation between the bacterial species on the various biomaterials and the quantity of biofilm formation after various incubation times. Maggot excretions/secretions were added to existing biofilms to examine their effect.
Comb-like models of the biomaterials, made to fit in a 96-well microtiter plate, were incubated with bacterial suspension. The formed biofilms were stained in crystal violet, which was eluted in ethanol. The optical density (at 595 nm) of the eluate was determined to quantify biofilm formation. Maggot excretions/secretions were pipetted in different concentrations to (nonstained) 7-day-old biofilms, incubated 24 hours, and finally measured.
The strongest biofilms were formed by S. aureus and S. epidermidis on polyethylene and the weakest on titanium. The highest quantity of biofilm formation was reached within 7 days for both bacteria. The presence of excretions/secretions reduced biofilm formation on all biomaterials. A maximum of 92% of biofilm reduction was measured.
Our observations suggest maggot excretions/secretions decrease biofilm formation and could provide a new treatment for biofilm formation on infected biomaterials.
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- Maggot Excretions Inhibit Biofilm Formation on Biomaterials
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Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research®
Volume 468, Issue 10 , pp 2789-2796
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- 1. Department of Trauma Surgery, VU University Medical Center, PO Box 7057, 1007 MB, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
- 2. Department of Medical Microbiology & Infection Control, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
- 3. Department of Pathology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands