, Volume 467, Issue 9, pp 2251-2258
Date: 12 May 2009

Enhanced Cell Integration to Titanium Alloy by Surface Treatment with Microarc Oxidation: A Pilot Study

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Microarc oxidation (MAO) is a surface treatment that provides nanoporous pits, and thick oxide layers, and incorporates calcium and phosphorus into the coating layer of titanium alloy. We presumed such modification on the surface of titanium alloy by MAO would improve the ability of cementless stems to osseointegrate. We therefore compared the in vitro ability of cells to adhere to MAOed titanium alloy to that of two different types of surface modifications: machined and grit-blasted. We performed energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and scanned electron microscopy investigations to assess the structure and morphology of the surfaces. Biologic and morphologic responses to osteoblast cell lines (SaOS-2) were then examined by measuring cell proliferation, cell differentiation (alkaline phosphatase activity), and αvβ3 integrin. The cell proliferation rate, alkaline phosphatase activity, and cell adhesion in the MAO group increased in comparison to those in the machined and grit-blasted groups. The osteoblast cell lines of the MAO group were also homogeneously spread on the surface, strongly adhered, and well differentiated when compared to the other groups. This method could be a reasonable option for treating the surfaces of titanium alloy for better osseointegration.