Shaped, Stratified, Scaffold-free Grafts for Articular Cartilage Defects
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
One goal of treatment for large articular cartilage defects is to restore the anatomic contour of the joint with tissue having a structure similar to native cartilage. Shaped and stratified cartilaginous tissue may be fabricated into a suitable graft to achieve such restoration. We asked if scaffold-free cartilaginous constructs, anatomically shaped and targeting spherically-shaped hips, can be created using a molding technique and if biomimetic stratification of the shaped constructs can be achieved with appropriate superficial and middle/deep zone chondrocyte subpopulations. The shaped, scaffold-free constructs were formed from the alginate-released bovine calf chondrocytes with shaping on one (saucer), two (cup), or neither (disk) surfaces. The saucer and cup constructs had shapes distinguishable quantitatively (radius of curvature of 5.5 ± 0.1 mm for saucer and 2.8 ± 0.1 mm for cup) and had no adverse effects on the glycosaminoglycan and collagen contents and their distribution in the constructs as assessed by biochemical assays and histology, respectively. Biomimetic stratification of chondrocyte subpopulations in saucer- and cup-shaped constructs was confirmed and quantified using fluorescence microscopy and image analysis. This shaping method, combined with biomimetic stratification, has the potential to create anatomically contoured large cartilaginous constructs.
- Alhadlaq A, Mao JJ. Tissue-engineered osteochondral constructs in the shape of an articular condyle. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2005;87:936–944. CrossRef
- Allan KS, Pilliar RM, Wang J, Grynpas MD, Kandel RA. Formation of biphasic constructs containing cartilage with a calcified zone interface. Tissue Eng. 2007;13:167–177. CrossRef
- Brittberg M, Lindahl A, Nilsson A, Ohlsson C, Isaksson O, Peterson L. Treatment of deep cartilage defects in the knee with autologous chondrocyte transplantation. N Engl J Med. 1994;331:889–895. CrossRef
- Buckwalter JA. Evaluating methods of restoring cartilaginous articular surfaces. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1999;367S:224–238. CrossRef
- Buckwalter JA, Mankin HJ. Articular cartilage. Part II: degeneration and osteoarthrosis, repair, regeneration, and transplantation. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1997;79:612–632.
- Bugbee WD, Convery FR. Osteochondral allograft transplantation. Clin Sports Med. 1999;18:67–75. CrossRef
- Cao Y, Vacanti JP, Paige KT, Upton J, Vacanti CA. Transplantation of chondrocytes utilizing a polymer-cell construct to produce tissue-engineered cartilage in the shape of a human ear. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1997;100:297–302; discussion 303–294. CrossRef
- Chang SC, Rowley JA, Tobias G, Genes NG, Roy AK, Mooney DJ, Vacanti CA, Bonassar LJ. Injection molding of chondrocyte/alginate constructs in the shape of facial implants. J Biomed Mater Res. 2001;55:503–511. CrossRef
- Chawla K, Klein TJ, Schumacher BL, Jadin KD, Shah BH, Nakagawa K, Wong VW, Chen AC, Masuda K, Sah RL. Short-term retention of chondrocytes subpopulation in stratified tissue-engineered cartilaginous constructs implanted in vivo in mini-pigs. Tissue Eng. 2007;13:1525–1537. CrossRef
- Chawla K, Klein TJ, Schumacher BL, Schmidt TA, Voegtline MS, Thonar EJ, Masuda K, Sah RL. Tracking chondrocytes and assessing their proliferation with PKH26: effects on secretion of proteoglycan 4 (PRG4). J Orthop Res. 2006;24:1499–1508. CrossRef
- Cherubino P, Grassi FA, Bulgheroni P, Ronga M. Autologous chondrocyte implantation using a bilayer collagen membrane: a preliminary report. J Orthop Surg (Hong Kong). 2003;11:10–15.
- Curl WW, Krome J, Gordon ES, Rushing J, Smith BP, Poehling GG. Cartilage injuries: a review of 31,516 knee arthroscopies. Arthroscopy. 1997;13:456–460.
- Dieppe PA, Lohmander LS. Pathogenesis and management of pain in osteoarthritis. Lancet. 2005;365:965–973. CrossRef
- Farndale RW, Buttle DJ, Barrett AJ. Improved quantitation and discrimination of sulphated glycosaminoglycans by use of dimethylmethylene blue. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1986;883:173–177.
- Felson DT. Epidemiology of hip and knee osteoarthritis. Epidemiol Rev. 1988;10:1–28.
- Hjelle K, Solheim E, Strand T, Muri R, Brittberg M. Articular cartilage defects in 1,000 knee arthroscopies. Arthroscopy. 2002;18:730–734. CrossRef
- Hott ME, Megerian CA, Beane R, Bonassar LJ. Fabrication of tissue engineered tympanic membrane patches using computer-aided design and injection molding. Laryngoscope. 2004;114:1290–1295. CrossRef
- Hu JC, Athanasiou KA. Chondrocytes from different zones exhibit characteristic differences in high density culture. Connect Tissue Res. 2006;47:133–140. CrossRef
- Hung CT, Lima EG, Mauck RL, Taki E, LeRoux MA, Lu HH, Stark RG, Guo XE, Ateshian GA. Anatomically shaped osteochondral constructs for articular cartilage repair. J Biomech. 2003;36:1853–1864. CrossRef
- Isogai N, Landis W, Kim TH, Gerstenfeld LC, Upton J, Vacanti JP. Formation of phalanges and small joints by tissue-engineering. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1999;81:306–316. CrossRef
- Kamil SH, Kojima K, Vacanti MP, Bonassar LJ, Vacanti CA, Eavey RD. In vitro tissue engineering to generate a human-sized auricle and nasal tip. Laryngoscope. 2003;113:90–94. CrossRef
- Kang SW, Son SM, Lee JS, Lee ES, Lee KY, Park SG, Park JH, Kim BS. Regeneration of whole meniscus using meniscal cells and polymer scaffolds in a rabbit total meniscectomy model. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2006;78:659–671.
- Khouri RK, Koudsi B, Reddi H. Tissue transformation into bone in vivo. A potential practical application. JAMA. 1991;266:1953–1955. CrossRef
- Klein TJ, Chaudhry M, Bae WC, Sah RL. Depth-dependent biomechanical and biochemical properties of fetal, newborn, and tissue-engineered articular cartilage. J Biomech. 2007;40:182–190. CrossRef
- Klein TJ, Schumacher BL, Blewis ME, Schmidt TA, Voegtline MS, Thonar EJ-MA, Masuda K, Sah RL. Tailoring secretion of proteoglycan 4 (PRG4) in tissue-engineered cartilage. Tissue Eng. 2006;12:1429–1439. CrossRef
- Klein TJ, Schumacher BL, Schmidt TA, Li KW, Voegtline MS, Masuda K, Thonar EJ, Sah RL.Tissue engineering of stratified articular cartilage from chondrocyte subpopulations. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2003;11:595–602. CrossRef
- Koh JL, Wirsing K, Lautenschlager E, Zhang LO. The effect of graft height mismatch on contact pressure following osteochondral grafting. A biomechanical study. Am J Sports Med. 2004;32:317–320. CrossRef
- Maroudas A. Physico-chemical properties of articular cartilage. In: Freeman MAR, ed. Adult Articular Cartilage. 2nd ed. Tunbridge Wells, England: Pitman Medical; 1979:215–290.
- Masuda K, Sah RL, Hejna MJ, Thonar EJ. A novel two-step method for the formation of tissue-engineered cartilage by mature bovine chondrocytes: the alginate-recovered-chondrocyte (ARC) method. J Orthop Res. 2003;21:139–148. CrossRef
- Matsusue Y, Yamamuro T, Hama H. Arthroscopic multiple osteochondral transplantation to the chondral defect in the knee associated with anterior cruciate ligament disruption. Arthroscopy. 1993;9:318–321.
- McGowan KB, Kurtis MS, Lottman LM, Watson D, Sah RL. Biochemical quantification of DNA in human articular and septal cartilage using PicoGreen and Hoechst 33258. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2002;10:580–587. CrossRef
- Melzer D, Guralnik JM, Brock D. Prevalence and distribution of hip and knee joint replacements and hip implants in older Americans by the end of life. Aging Clin Exp Res. 2003;15:60–66.
- Rosenberg LC. Chemical basis for the histological use of safranin O in the study of articular cartilage. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1971;53:69–82.
- Rushfeldt PD, Mann RW, Harris WH. Improved techniques for measuring in vitro the geometry and pressure distribution in the human acetabulum–I. ultrasonic measurement of acetabular surfaces, sphericity and cartilage thickness. J Biomech. 1981;14:253–260. CrossRef
- Sedrakyan S, Zhou ZY, Perin L, Leach K, Mooney D, Kim TH. Tissue engineering of a small hand phalanx with a porously casted polylactic acid-polyglycolic acid copolymer. Tissue Eng. 2006;12:2675–2683. CrossRef
- Sharma B, Williams CG, Kim TK, Sun D, Malik A, Khan M, Leong K, Elisseeff JH. Designing zonal organization into tissue-engineered cartilage. Tissue Eng. 2007;13:405–414. CrossRef
- Sidler R, Köstler W, Bardyn T, Styner MA, Sudkamp N, Nolte L, González Ballester MA. Computer-assisted ankle joint arthroplasty using bio-engineered autografts. Med Image Comput Comput Assist Interv Int Conf Med Image Comput Comput Assist Interv. 2005;8(Pt 1):474–481.
- Stoddart MJ, Ettinger L, Hauselmann HJ. Generation of a scaffold free cartilage-like implant from a small amount of starting material. J Cell Mol Med. 2006;10:480–492. CrossRef
- Williams GM, Lin JW, Sah RL. Cartilage reshaping via in vitro mechanical loading. Tissue Eng. 2007;13:2903–2911. CrossRef
- Woessner JF. The determination of hydroxyproline in tissue and protein samples containing small proportions of this imino acid. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1961;93:440–447. CrossRef
- Xu JW, Johnson TS, Motarjem PM, Peretti GM, Randolph MA, Yaremchuk MJ. Tissue-engineered flexible ear-shaped cartilage. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2005;115:1633–1641. CrossRef
- Shaped, Stratified, Scaffold-free Grafts for Articular Cartilage Defects
Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research
Volume 466, Issue 8 , pp 1912-1920
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Additional Links
- Industry Sectors
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Department of Bioengineering, University of California-San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, MC 0412, La Jolla, CA, 92093-0412, USA
- 2. Department of Radiology, University of California-San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA
- 3. Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California-San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA
- 4. Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of California-San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA
- 5. Department of Orthopedic Surgery and Biochemistry, Rush Medical College at Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA
- 6. Whitaker Institute of Biomedical Engineering, University of California-San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA