Journal of Coatings Technology and Research

, Volume 10, Issue 3, pp 407-413

First online:

Bond strength of hybrid sol–gel coatings with different additives

  • Mousa MayAffiliated withMaterials and Engineering Research Institute, Sheffield Hallam University Email author 
  • , Heming WangAffiliated withMaterials and Engineering Research Institute, Sheffield Hallam University
  • , Robert AkidAffiliated withMaterials and Engineering Research Institute, Sheffield Hallam University

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The hybrid sol–gel coating on Al 2024-T3 was modified by adding polyaniline, TiO2, or γ-Al2O3 nanoparticles in the formulation separately. The coating was then used as an adhesive to bond Al 2024-T3 alloys, forming a single lap joint. The bond strength of the sol–gel coating was investigated using a universal tensile test machine. The lap shear strength of the original sol–gel coating was about 1.38 MPa and it was increased up to 2.26 MPa after the modification by adding 0.05 wt% PANI microparticles in the sol–gel coating. The small increase in strength was attributed to an improvement in its adhesive flexibility because of incorporation of the long-chain organic polymer in its structure. Furthermore, the addition of different amounts of TiO2 nanoparticles in the unmodified sol–gel coating also led to an increase in shear strength compared to the undoped sol–gel coating. Typically, a sol–gel coating containing 2.0 wt% of TiO2 recorded the highest adhesive strength of about 4.0 MPa. A similar increase in strength was observed when doping γ-Al2O3 nanoparticles into the original hybrid sol–gel coating. Adding 0.5 wt% of γ-Al2O3 in the sol–gel coating increased the adhesive bonding strength up to 4.48 MPa. The fracture surface of the specimen was separately observed by SEM and Optical Microscopy in order to examine potential evidences of mechanism and nature of failure. The reason why the adhesive strength increased after the modification of the sol–gel coating is discussed in this article.


Hybrid sol–gel Coating Bond strength Nanoparticles