Food and Bioprocess Technology

, Volume 7, Issue 7, pp 2038–2049

Influence of Ultrasonication Parameters on Physical Characteristics of Olive Oil Model Emulsions Containing Xanthan

Original Paper

DOI: 10.1007/s11947-014-1266-1

Cite this article as:
Kaltsa, O., Gatsi, I., Yanniotis, S. et al. Food Bioprocess Technol (2014) 7: 2038. doi:10.1007/s11947-014-1266-1


Ultrasonic emulsification of 20-wt.% o/w emulsions (pH 3.8) containing a food-grade emulsifier (whey protein isolate, WPI, 2.7 wt.%) and xanthan gum (XG, 0.25 wt.%) was performed. Time and amplitude of ultrasonic treatment changed in order to evaluate their influence on emulsion droplet size, viscosity, and stability (by multiple light scattering (MLS) profiles) during cold storage (10 days at 5 °C). Ultrasonic treatment duration changed from 1 to 4 min at constant amplitude of 70 %. Considering the amplitude, intervals of 40, 60, 80, and 100 % were chosen, for a constant time of 1 min. Similarly, time and amplitude conditions were used to treat solutions of XG of 1 wt.% and evaluate their influence on viscosity and how that was related to the stability of the emulsion. Increase in sonication time from 1 to 4 min led to a significant oil droplet size decrease from 1.14 to 0.89 μm (median droplet diameter). The viscosity of emulsions and XG solutions was highly influenced and considerably decreased with sonication time applied. At those conditions, an increase of backscattering was observed from 58.9 to 72.7 % after 10 days of storage, meaning that more stable emulsions, thinner and of smaller oil droplet size were produced. A similar trend was observed when the amplitude was increased, but droplet size and creaming were always greater than those noticed by changing the sonication time. However, the rate of viscosity, droplet size, and stability change was greater by increasing the amplitude rather than by changing the sonication time.


o/w emulsion Sonication parameters Droplet size Creaming Viscosity 

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Food Science and TechnologyAgricultural University of AthensAthensGreece