Review

Food and Bioprocess Technology

, Volume 7, Issue 2, pp 324-337

First online:

An Overview of the Recent Developments on Fructooligosaccharide Production and Applications

  • Ana Luísa DominguezAffiliated withCentre of Biological Engineering, IBB—Institute for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, University of Minho Email author 
  • , Lígia Raquel RodriguesAffiliated withCentre of Biological Engineering, IBB—Institute for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, University of MinhoBiotempo—Consultoria em Biotecnologia, Lda
  • , Nelson Manuel LimaAffiliated withCentre of Biological Engineering, IBB—Institute for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, University of Minho
  • , José António TeixeiraAffiliated withCentre of Biological Engineering, IBB—Institute for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, University of Minho

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Abstract

Over the past years, many researchers have suggested that deficiencies in the diet can lead to disease states and that some diseases can be avoided through an adequate intake of relevant dietary components. Recently, a great interest in dietary modulation of the human gut has been registered. Prebiotics, such as fructooligosaccharides (FOS), play a key role in the improvement of gut microbiota balance and in individual health. FOS are generally used as components of functional foods, are generally regarded as safe (generally recognized as safe status—from the Food and Drug Administration, USA), and worth about 150€ per kilogram. Due to their nutrition- and health-relevant properties, such as moderate sweetness, low carcinogenicity, low calorimetric value, and low glycemic index, FOS have been increasingly used by the food industry. Conventionally, FOS are produced through a two-stage process that requires an enzyme production and purification step in order to proceed with the chemical reaction itself. Several studies have been conducted on the production of FOS, aiming its optimization toward the development of more efficient production processes and their potential as food ingredients. The improvement of FOS yield and productivity can be achieved by the use of different fermentative methods and different microbial sources of FOS-producing enzymes and the optimization of nutritional and culture parameter; therefore, this review focuses on the latest progresses in FOS research such as its production, functional properties, and market data.

Keywords

Fructooligosaccharides Prebiotics Transfructosylation Production yield Fructosyltransferase Fructofuranosidase