, Volume 6, Issue 5, pp 1251-1260,
Open Access This content is freely available online to anyone, anywhere at any time.
Date: 04 Mar 2012

Effect of Modified Starches on Rheological Properties of Ketchup

Abstract

The aim of this work was to study the effect of commercial modified starches of different origin on rheological properties of ketchup. The following starches were used to produce the ketchup samples: chemically modified potato (acetylated distarch adipate from potato starch), waxy maize (acetylated distarch adipate from waxy maize starch and hydroxypropyl distarch phosphate from waxy maize starch), and cassava (acetylated distarch adipate from cassava starch) starches and physically modified cassava and waxy maize starches (physically modified cassava starch and physically modified waxy maize starch). The SEM microphotographs revealed that swollen or disrupted starch granules were present in the ketchup samples. As was evaluated by particle size distribution analysis, two peaks characteristic for different starch granule sizes were observed, the first peak at about 100 μm for ketchup thickened with potato starch and the second one at about 50 μm for the rest of the samples. Ketchups showed non-Newtonian, shear-thinning flow with tendency to yield stress. Values of the rheological parameters describing the flow curves significantly correlated with Bostwick consistency. Ketchup samples exhibited different susceptibility for temperature changes, while values of flow activation energy were from 4.18 to 9.00 kJ/mol. On the basis of mechanical spectra, it is noted that values of G′ were higher than these of G″ showing that elastic properties dominated over the viscous ones. Ketchup samples exhibited properties of weak gels which were estimated from the values of G′ and G″ moduli and their relation and from values of tangent of phase angle (tan δ = 0.14 − 0.37). Principal component analysis revealed both similarities and differences in rheological behavior of the examined ketchup samples thickened with different modified starches.