Management of Pediatric Status Epilepticus
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- Abend, N.S. & Loddenkemper, T. Curr Treat Options Neurol (2014) 16: 301. doi:10.1007/s11940-014-0301-x
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Status epilepticus (SE) is a medical emergency consisting of persistent or recurring seizures without a return to baseline mental status. SE can be divided into subtypes based on seizure types and underlying etiologies. Management should be implemented rapidly and based on pre-determined care pathways. The aim is to terminate seizures while simultaneously identifying and managing precipitant conditions. Seizure management involves “emergent” treatment with benzodiazepines (lorazepam intravenously, midazolam intramuscularly, or diazepam rectally) followed by “urgent” therapy (phenytoin/fosphenytoin, phenobarbital, levetiracetam or valproate sodium). If seizures persist, “refractory” treatments include infusions of midazolam or pentobarbital. Prognosis is dependent on the underlying etiology and seizure persistence. This article reviews the current management strategies for pediatric convulsive SE.