Modern treatment options for intracerebral hemorrhage
- Cite this article as:
- Freeman, W.D. & Brott, T.G. Curr Treat Options Neurol (2006) 8: 145. doi:10.1007/s11940-006-0005-y
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Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a devastating neurological event with a 30-day mortality of approximately 40%. Recent research provides new insights into the pathophysiology of ICH-associated edema, with potential molecular and cellular targets for future therapy. Neuroimaging techniques such as gradient echo MRI are yielding insights into cerebral microbleeds and the microangiopathies associated with hypertension and cerebral amyloid angiopathy. Recent literature provides new medical treatment strategies for fever, acute hypertension, and perihematomal edema, and methods of reducing intracranial pressure. Two randomized controlled trials have provided crucial evidence regarding surgical and medical intervention for acute ICH intervention. Recombinant factor VIIa appears to lessen growth of ICH when administered within 4 hours of ictus. Further study of potential efficacy and safety is underway in an international phase III trial. In addition, the Surgical Trial in Intracerebral Hemorrhage reported results from an international randomized trial of 1033 patients who did not show benefit for surgical evacuation of ICH, compared with medical therapy alone. Less invasive surgical methods for hematoma evacuation, studied previously over the past decade, continue to be investigated.