- Cite this article as:
- Ramzan, N.N. Curr Treat Options Gastro (1999) 2: 363. doi:10.1007/s11938-999-0026-1
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Surgery may be performed to remove infected heart valves and joints in rare complicated cases.
The role of immunomodulatory treatment is promising but is limited by experience.
Nutritional support is a critical part of treatment, especially in patients with diarrhea and weight loss due to malabsorption.