Approach to Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with a large burden of cardiovascular risk factors ultimately leading to increased cardiovascular events and mortality. Prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in CKD involves early identification of individuals at high-risk of renal disease. In fact, substantial evidence points to a complex bidirectional relationship between CKD and CVD. Therefore, most interventions directed at CKD prevention should include multiple risk factor interventions with the goal of preventing CVD events while slowing progression of CKD. Clearly, prevention of CVD in CKD is a complex task and requires a multidisciplinary team approach, with a well-defined program, rational targets for each risk factor, and implementation of the most effective intervention strategies. Although several interventions to prevent CVD have proven effective in the general population and in individuals at high risk for CVD, a true benefit in patients with CKD remains to be demonstrated for several of them. A few rational targets of intervention should be optimal blood pressure control, reduction of proteinuria, treatment of dyslipidemia, good control of diabetes, smoking cessation, dietary salt restriction, achievement of normal body mass index, partial correction of anemia, and management of mineral metabolism abnormalities. Lifestyle modification and pharmacological therapy with renin-angiotensin blockers, β-blockers, diuretics, statins, and aspirin should be encouraged in the early stages of CKD.