Management of the metabolic syndrome in cardiovascular disease

  • Wai Ping Alicia Chan
  • Aaron Leonid Sverdlov
  • John David Horowitz

DOI: 10.1007/s11936-008-0004-2

Cite this article as:
Chan, W.P.A., Sverdlov, A.L. & Horowitz, J.D. Curr Treat Options Cardio Med (2008) 10: 27. doi:10.1007/s11936-008-0004-2

Opinion statement

The main components of the metabolic syndrome (MS) are abdominal obesity, atherogenic dyslipidemia, raised blood pressure, insulin resistance with or without glucose intolerance, and proinflammatory and prothrombotic states. The clustering of these metabolic risk factors significantly increases the risk of type 2 diabetes and promotes vascular endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, and increased oxidative stress. The net result is an increase in the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Therefore, management of MS is of utmost importance, especially considering its rapidly increasing prevalence in a population with rising obesity rates and its significant cardiovascular implications. The primary management of this syndrome involves the correction of the underlying risk factors—obesity, physical inactivity, and an atherogenic diet—with lifestyle modifications including increased physical activity and dietary modification. Smoking cessation also should be encouraged. However, pharmacologic therapies are often required to address cardiovascular risk factors. These agents can be categorized broadly into 1) anorectic agents, 2) insulinsensitizing agents, 3) statins, and 4) renin-angiotensin system antagonists. Emerging therapies include adipokines, endocannabinoid inhibitors, and metabolic modulators, such as perhexiline and trimetazidine. To date, these therapies have not been shown to normalize the metabolic and cardiovascular burden of MS, and there still is no single therapeutic agent for its management.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wai Ping Alicia Chan
  • Aaron Leonid Sverdlov
  • John David Horowitz
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of CardiologyThe Queen Elizabeth HospitalWoodville SouthAustralia

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