Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine

, Volume 9, Issue 4, pp 259-271

Adiposopathy: Treating pathogenic adipose tissue to reduce cardiovascular disease risk

  • Harold BaysAffiliated withL-MARC Research Center Email author 
  • , Helena W. Rodbard
  • , Alan Bruce Schorr
  • , J. Michael González-Campoy

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Opinion statement

Excessive adipose tissue is potentially pathogenic due to its mass effects and through adverse metabolic/immune responses, which may lead to cardiovascular disease risk factors (eg, type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and possibly atherosclerosis itself). Positive caloric balance in genetically/environmentally susceptible patients may result in adipocyte hypertrophy, visceral adipose tissue accumulation, and ectopic fat deposition, all causally associated with metabolic disease, and all anatomic manifestations of “adiposopathy” (a term used to describe adipose tissue pathology). Weight loss through improved nutrition, increased physical activity, and weight loss agents (ie, orlistat and sibutramine) improves adiposopathy and improves many metabolic diseases whose prevalence are directly associated with an increase in body fat and sedentary lifestyle. Cannabinoid receptor antagonists improve adiposopathy through weight reduction and favorable metabolic effects upon multiple body organs (including adipocytes). Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ agonists may improve adiposopathy through recruitment of functional fat cells and apoptosis of dysfunctional fat cells.