2001, Volume 3, Issue 4, pp 323-332
- Gerald Reaven MD
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- Reaven GM, Lithell H, Landsberg L: Hypertension and associated metabolic abnormalities—the role of insulin resistance and the sympathoadrenal system. N Engl J Med 1996, 334:374–381. CrossRef
- Facchini FS, Riccardo A, Stoohs A, Reaven GM: Enhanced sympathetic nervous system activity—the linchpin between insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, and heart rate. Am J Hypertens 1996, 9:1013–1017. CrossRef
- Facchini FS, DoNascimento C, Reaven GM, et al.: Bloodpressure, sodium intake, insulin resistance, and urinary nitrate excretion. Hypertension 1999, 33:1008–1012. Evidence that compensatory hyperinsulinemia leads to sodium and water retention in response to increased salt intake in patients with essential hypertension. The results also demonstrate that salt-sensitive hypertension does not occur in patients with insulin sensitivity.
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- Zavaroni I, Mazza S, Dall’Aglio E, et al.: Prevalence of hyperinsulinemia in patients with high blood pressure. J Int Med 1992, 231:235–240.
- Reaven GM: Insulin resistance, compensatory hyperinsulinemia, and coronary heart disease: syndrome X revisited. In The Endocrine System, vol. II: The Endocrine Pancreas and Regulation of Metabolism [Handbook of Physiology series, section 7]. Edited by Jefferson LS, Cherrington AD. New York: Oxford University Press; 2001:1169–1197. An extensive review of the role of resistance, compensatory hyperinsulinemia, and associated abnormalities as major risk factors for CHD.
- MeigsJB, Mittleman MA, Nathan DM, et al.: Hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia and impaired hemostasis. The Framingham Offspring Study. JAMA 2000, 283:221–228. Evidence from a very large data base documenting the importance of hyperinsulinemia as a surrogate marker for insulin resistance in the regulation of various factors controlling hemostasis. CrossRef
- Dunaif A: Insulin resistance and the polycystic ovary syndrome: mechanism and implications for pathogenesis. Endocr Rev 1997, 18:774–800. CrossRef
- YipJ, Facchini FS, Reaven GM: Resistance to insulinmediated glucose disposal as a predictor of cardiovascular disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1998, 83:2773–2776. The only published prospective study showing that insulin resistance predicts the development of CHD in a group of middle-age volunteers followed for approximately 5 years. CrossRef
- Zavaroni I, Bonini L, Gasparini P, et al.: Hyperinsulinemia in a normal population as a predictor of noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and coronary heart disease: the Barilla factory revisited. Metabolism 1999, 48:989–994. The only prospective study identifying hyperinsulinemia as a predictor of states of glucose intolerance, hypertension, and CHD. CrossRef
- JeppensenJ, Hein HO, Suadicani P, Gyntelberg F: High triglycerides and low HDL cholesterol and blood pressure and risk of ischemic heart disease. Hypertension 2000, 36:226–232. Results of a population-based prospective study demonstrating that the development of CHD was significantly greater in patients whose hypertension was associated with the dyslipidemic manifestations of syndrome X.
- Reaven GM: Diet and syndrome X. Curr Atheroscler Rep 2000, 2:503–507. A review of the evidence showing that low-fat, high-carbohydrate diets are not beneficial for insulin-resistant individuals. CrossRef
- Reaven GM: Moderate alcohol consumption, insulin resistance, and cardiovascular disease. In Moderate Alcohol Consumption and Cardiovascular Disease. Edited by Paoletti R, et al. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers; 2000:61–66.
- Syndrome X
Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
Volume 3, Issue 4 , pp 323-332
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- Gerald Reaven MD (1)
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Mail Code 5406, 94305, Stanford, CA, USA