Floppy mitral valve, mitral valve prolapse, and mitral valvular regurgitation
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- Boudoulas, H. & Wooley, C.F. Curr Treat Options Cardio Med (2001) 3: 15. doi:10.1007/s11936-001-0081-y
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It is well recognized that the floppy mitral valve (FMV) complex is the central issue in the FMV, mitral valve prolapse (MVP), and mitral valvular regurgitation (MVR) story. MVP associated with the FMV results from the systolic movement of portions or segments of the FMV complex into the left atrium (LA). Prolapse of the FMV results in unique forms of mitral valvular dysfunction and MVR. When the FMV is recognized as the basic point of reference, diagnostic and nosologic characterizations are simplified. Each of the consequences of FMV dysfunction—MVP, MVR, and FMV surface phenomena—are dynamic entities and contribute to the symptoms and clinical course in this patient population.
Although MVP may occur in the absence of a FMV in individuals with small left ventricular (LV) volume, hyperdynamic, or hypercontractile LV, we do not consider this phenomenon as part of FMV/MVP/MVR.
The natural history of the FMV/MVP/MVR is long, and understanding the life history requires long-term follow-up with serial evaluations.
Identification of those individuals with FMV/MVP whose symptoms are related to, or associated with, autonomic nervous system dysfunction (ie, the FMV/MVP syndrome) is important, as this distinction has diagnostic and therapeutic implications.
In general, patients with FMV/MVP should receive antibiotic prophylaxis for infective endocarditis.
Data suggest that therapy with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors for FMV/MVP and significant MVR may slow the natural regression of the disease.
Surgical therapy should be considered in patients with significant MVR and symptoms related to MVR.
Explanation for the nature of these symptoms, reassurance, avoidance of volume depletion, catecholamines or other cycle-AMP stimulants and a regular exercise program constitute the basic principles of management for patients with FMV/MVP syndrome.