Current Urology Reports

, Volume 13, Issue 4, pp 307–310

An Update on Phthalates and Male Reproductive Development and Function

Pediatric Urology (R Grady, Section editor)

DOI: 10.1007/s11934-012-0261-1

Cite this article as:
Grady, R. & Sathyanarayana, S. Curr Urol Rep (2012) 13: 307. doi:10.1007/s11934-012-0261-1


Phthalates are part of a class of high-volume industrial chemicals used ubiquitously in health care as well as household products. Biomarker studies have confirmed the widespread presence of these chemicals in both humans and animals. As a class, phthalates have been implicated in diseases and birth anomalies of the genitourinary tract including hypospadias, testis anomalies, and subfertility. This article will discuss the current data surrounding these chemicals and their association with genital anomalies including genital anomalies and infertility.


PhthalatesAnogenital distanceInfertilityHypospadiasCryptorchismEndocrine disruptorBirth anomaliesGenitourinary tractTestis anomaliesSubfertility

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The University of Washington School of MedicineSeattleUSA
  2. 2.Seattle Children’s HospitalSeattleUSA
  3. 3.The University of Washington School of Public HealthSeattleUSA