Charalambous S, Trantafylidis A. Impact of urinary incontinence on quality of life. Pelviperineology. 2009;28(2):51–3.
Milsom I. Lower urinary tract symptoms in women. Curr Opin Urol. 2009;19(4):337–41.PubMedCrossRef
Nilsson CG, Palva K, Rezapour M, Falconer C. Eleven years prospective follow-up of the tension-free vaginal tape procedure for treatment of stress urinary incontinence. Int Urogynecol J. 2008;19(8):1043–7.CrossRef
Olsen AL, Smith VJ, Bergstrom JO, Colling JC, Clark AL. Epidemiology of surgically managed pelvic organ prolapse and urinary incontinence. Obstet Gynecol. 1997;89:501–6.PubMedCrossRef
Rogers RG. What’s best in the treatment of stress urinary incontinece? New Engl J Med. 2010;362(22):2124–5.PubMedCrossRef
Albo ME, Richter HE, Brubaker L, Norton P, Kraus SR, Zimmern PE, et al. Burch colposuspension versus fascial sling to reduce urinary stress incontinence. New Engl J Med. 2007;356(21):2143–55.PubMedCrossRef
Gungorduk K, Celebi I, Ark C, Celikkol O, Yildirim G. Which type of mid-urethral sling procedure should be chosen for treatment of stress urinary incontinance with intrinsic sphincter deficiency? tension-free vaginal tape or transobturator tape. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2009;88(8):920–6.PubMedCrossRef
Staack A, Rodriguez LV. Stem cells for the treatment of urinary incontinence. Curr Urol Rep. 2011;12(1):41–6.PubMedCrossRef
Oshima H, Payne TR, Urish KL, Sakai T, Ling YQ, Gharaibeh B, et al. Differential myocardial infarct repair with muscle stem cells compared to myoblasts. Mol Ther. 2005;12(6):1130–41.PubMedCrossRef
Fu Q, Song XF, Liao GL, Deng CL, Cui L. Myoblasts differentiated from adipose-derived stem cells to treat stress urinary incontinence. Urology. 2010;75(3):718–23.PubMedCrossRef
Drost AC, Weng S, Feil G, Schafer J, Baumann S, Kanz L, et al. In vitro myogenic differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells as a potential treatment for urethral sphincter muscle repair. Hematopoietic Stem Cells Vii. 2009;1176:135–43.
Wu GZ, Zheng X, Jiang ZQ, Wang JH, Song YF. Induced differentiation of adipose-derived stromal cells into myoblasts. J Huazhong Univ Sci Technol Med Sci. 2010;30(3):285–90.PubMedCrossRef
Herschorn S, Carr L, Birch C, Murphy M, Robert M, Jankowski R, et al. Autologous muscle-derived cells as therapy for stress urinary incontinence: a randomized, blinded trial. Neurourol Urodyn. 2010;29(2):307.
Tang XL, Rokosh G, Sanganalmath SK, Pang Y, Yuan FP, Dai SJ, et al. Beneficial effects of cardiac progenitor cells on LV function 1 year after treatment in rats with myocardial infarction. Circulation. 2008;118(18):S289–90.
Amado LC, Schuleri KH, Saliaris AP, Boyle AJ, Helm R, Oskouei B, et al. Multimodality noninvasive imaging demonstrates in vivo cardiac regeneration after mesenchymal stem cell therapy. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2006;48(10):2116–24.PubMedCrossRef
Kuliszewski MA, Kobulnik J, Lindner JR, Stewart DJ, Leong-Poi H. Vascular gene transfer of SDF-1 promotes endothelial progenitor cell engraftment and enhances angiogenesis in ischemic muscle. Mol Ther. 2011;19(5):895–902.PubMedCrossRef
•• Sundararaman S, Miller TJ, Pastore JM, Kiedrowski M, Aras R, Penn MS. Plasmid-based transient human stromal cell-derived factor-1 gene transfer improves cardiac function in chronic heart failure. Gene Ther. 2011. In this paper, the authors demonstrate that increasing expression of stromal cell–derived factor-1 promoted angiogenesis and improved cardiac function in rats with ischemic heart failure, presumably by attracting stem cells to the region to facilitate recovery from the injury. These data demonstrate that stand-alone nonviral gene transfer is a strategy for improving cardiac function, and could possibly work for the lower urinary tract as well.
Gandia C, Arminan A, Garcia-Verdugo JM, Lledo E, Ruiz A, Minana MD, et al. Human dental pulp stem cells improve left ventricular function, induce angiogenesis, and reduce infarct size in rats with acute myocardial infarction. Stem Cells. 2008;26(3):638–45.PubMedCrossRef
Nagaya N, Fujii T, Iwase T, Ohgushi H, Itoh T, Uematsu M, et al. Intravenous administration of mesenchymal stem cells improves cardiac function in rats with acute myocardial infarction through angiogenesis and myogenesis. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2004;287(6):H2670–6.PubMedCrossRef
Tang XL, Rokosh G, Guo YR, Bolli R. Cardiac progenitor cells and bone marrow-derived very small embryonic-like stem cells for cardiac repair after myocardial infarction. Circ J. 2010;74(3):390–404.PubMedCrossRef
Hashemi SM, Ghods S, Kolodgie FD, Parcham-Azad K, Keane M, Hamamdzic D, et al. A placebo controlled, dose-ranging, safety study of allogenic mesenchymal stem cells injected by endomyocardial delivery after an acute myocardial infarction. Eur Hear J. 2008;29(2):251–9.CrossRef
Gnecchi M, He HM, Liang OD, Melo LG, Morello F, Mu H, et al. Paracrine action accounts for marked protection of ischemic heart by Akt-modified mesenchymal stem cells. Nat Med. 2005;11(4):367–8.PubMedCrossRef
Uemura R, Xu M, Ahmad N, Ashraf M. Bone marrow stem cells prevent left ventricular remodeling of ischemic heart through paracrine signaling. Circ Res. 2006;98(11):1414–21.PubMedCrossRef
Gnecchi M, Zhang ZP, Ni AG, Dzau VJ. Paracrine mechanisms in adult stem cell signaling and therapy. Circ Res. 2008;103(11):1204–19.PubMedCrossRef
•• Hare JM, Traverse JH, Henry TD, Dib N, Strumpf RK, Schulman SP et al. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation study of intravenous adult human mesenchymal stem cells (prochymal) after acute myocardial infarction. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2009;54(24):2277–86. The authors report results that demonstrate that intravenous allogeneic human mesenchymal stem cells are safe to administer to patients with myocardial infarction. This clinical study provides pivotal safety and provisional efficacy data for allogeneic BMSCs in postinfarction patients and suggests this approach could be useful in therapy for other conditions.
Janssens S, Dubois C, Bogaert J, Theunissen K, Deroose C, Desmet W, et al. Autologous bone marrow-derived stem-cell transfer in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: double-blind, randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2006;367(9505):113–21.PubMedCrossRef
Assmus B, Rolf A, Erbs S, Elsasser A, Haberbosch W, Hambrecht R, et al. Clinical outcome 2 years after intracoronary administration of bone marrow-derived progenitor cells in acute myocardial infarction. Circ Heart Fail. 2010;3(1):89–96.PubMedCrossRef
Bartunek J, Dimmeler S, Drexler H, Fernandez-Aviles F, Galinanes M, Janssens S, et al. The consensus of the task force of the European Society of Cardiology concerning the clinical investigation of the use of autologous adult stem cells for repair of the heart. Eur Hear J. 2006;27(11):1338–40.CrossRef
Traverse JH, Henry TD, Vaughn DE, Ellis SG, Pepine CJ, Willerson JT, et al. Rationale and design for TIME: a phase II, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot trial evaluating the safety and effect of timing of administration of bone marrow mononuclear cells after acute myocardial infarction. Am Hear J. 2009;158(3):356–63.CrossRef
Traverse JH, Henry TD, Vaughan DE, Ellis SG, Pepine CJ, Willerson JT, et al. LateTIME a phase-ii, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, pilot trial evaluating the safety and effect of administration of bone marrow mononuclear cells 2 to 3 weeks after acute myocardial infarction. Tex Hear Inst J. 2010;37(4):412–20.
Morrison SJ, Spradling AC. Stem cells and niches: mechanisms that promote stem cell maintenance throughout life. Cell. 2008;132(4):598–611.PubMedCrossRef
Shokeir AA, Harraz AM, El-Din ABS. Tissue engineering and stem cells: basic principles and applications in urology. Int J Urol. 2010;17(12):964–73.PubMedCrossRef
Meirelles LDS, Chagastelles PC, Nardi NB. Mesenchymal stem cells reside in virtually all post-natal organs and tissues. J Cell Sci. 2006;119(11):2204–13.CrossRef
Lee RH, Kim B, Choi I, Kim H, Choi HS, Suh K, et al. Characterization and expression analysis of mesenchymal stem cells from human bone marrow and adipose tissue. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2004;14(4–6):311–24.PubMedCrossRef
Kern S, Eichler H, Stoeve J, Kluter H, Bieback K. Comparative analysis of mesenchymal stem cells from bone marrow, umbilical cord blood, or adipose tissue. Stem Cells. 2006;24(5):1294–301.PubMedCrossRef
De Coppi P, Delo D, Farrugia L, Udompanyanan K, Yoo JJ, Nomi M, et al. Angiogenic gene-modified muscle cells for enhancement of tissue formation. Tissue Eng. 2005;11(7–8):1034–44.PubMedCrossRef
Goodsell DS. The molecular perspective: VEGF and angiogenesis. Stem Cells. 2003;21(1):118–9.PubMedCrossRef
Prockop DJ, Gregory CA, Spees JL. One strategy for cell and gene therapy: harnessing the power of adult stem cells to repair tissues. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:11917–23.PubMedCrossRef
Zhao LR, Duan WM, Reyes M, Keene CD, Verfaillie CM, Low WC. Human bone marrow stem cells exhibit neural phenotypes and ameliorate neurological deficits after grafting into the ischemic brain of rats. Exp Neurol. 2002;174(1):11–20.PubMedCrossRef
Salem HK, Thiemermann C. Mesenchymal stromal cells: current understanding and clinical status. Stem Cells. 2010;28(3):585–96.PubMed
Amado LC, Saliaris AP, Schuleri KH, St John M, Xie JS, Cattaneo S, et al. Cardiac repair with intramyocardial injection of allogeneic mesenchymal stem cells after myocardial infarction. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102(32):11474–9.PubMedCrossRef
Sasaki M, Abe R, Fujita Y, Ando S, Inokuma D, Shimizu H. Mesenchymal stem cells are recruited into wounded skin and contribute to wound repair by transdifferentiation into multiple skin cell type. J Immunol. 2008;180(4):2581–7.PubMed
Duffield JS, Bonventre JV. Kidney tubular epithelium is restored without replacement with bone marrow-derived cells during repair after ischemic injury. Kidney Int. 2005;68(5):1956–61.PubMedCrossRef
•• Shabbir A, Zisa D, Suzuki G, Lee T. Heart failure therapy mediated by the trophic activities of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells: a noninvasive therapeutic regimen. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2009;296(6):H1888–897. The authors demonstrated that intramuscularly injected mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and MSC-conditioned medium each significantly improved ventricular function in a hamster heart failure model, suggesting that cell therapy does not need to be local to be effective. Because multiple tissues are damaged during delivery, this suggests that a less invasive approach could be utilized to deliver a cell-based therapy.
Dissaranan C, Gill B, Cruz M, Salcedo L, Brian B, Kiedrowski M, et al. Intravenous mesenchymal stem cells facilitate recovery from stress urinary incontinence after childbirth injury. Neurourol Urodyn. 2011;30(2):235.
Woo LL, Hijaz A, Kuang M, Penn MS, Damaser MS, Rackley RR. Overexpression of stem cell homing cytokines in rat pelvic organs following vaginal distension. J Urol. 2007;177:1568–72.PubMedCrossRef
Wood HM, Kuang M, Woo L, Hijaz A, Butler RS, Penn M, et al. Cytokine expression after vaginal distention of different durations in virgin Sprague-Dawley rats. J Urol. 2008;180(2):753–9.PubMedCrossRef
Strasser H, Berjukow S, Marksteiner R, Margreiter E, Hering S, Bartsch G, et al. Stem cell therapy for urinary stress incontinence. Exp Gerontol. 2004;39(9):1259–65.PubMedCrossRef
Lanza RP, Chung HY, Yoo JJ, Wettstein PJ, Blackwell C, Borson N, et al. Generation of histocompatible tissues using nuclear transplantation. Nat Biotechnol. 2002;20(7):689–96.PubMedCrossRef
Minuth WW, Sorokin L, Schumacher K. Generation of renal tubules at the interface of an artificial interstitium. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2004;14(4–6):387–94.PubMedCrossRef
Geijsen N, Horoschak M, Kim K, Gribnau J, Eggan K, Daley GQ. In vitro generation of male germ cells from embryonic stem cells. Biol Reprod. 2004;87
Toyooka Y, Tsunekawa N, Akasu R, Noce T. Embryonic stem cells can form germ cells in vitro. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100(20):11457–62.PubMedCrossRef
Przyborski SA. Differentiation of human embryonic stem cells after transplantation in immune-deficient mice. Stem Cells. 2005;23(9):1242–50.PubMedCrossRef
Jain KK. Ethical and regulatory aspects of embryonic stem cell research. Expert Opin Biol Ther. 2005;5(2):153–62.PubMedCrossRef
Pittenger MF, Mackay AM, Beck SC, Jaiswal RK, Douglas R, Mosca JD, et al. Multilineage potential of adult human mesenchymal stem cells. Science. 1999;284(5411):143–7.PubMedCrossRef
Delorme B, Charbord P. Culture and characterization of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Tissue Eng Meth Mol Med. 2007;140:67–81.
Nikolavsky D, Chancellor MB. Stem cell therapy for stress urinary incontinence. Neurourol Urodyn. 2010;29:S36–41.PubMedCrossRef
Furuta A, Jankowski RJ, Pruchnic R, Egawa S, Yoshimura N, Chancellor MB. Physiological effects of human muscle-derived stem cell implantation on urethral smooth muscle function. Int Urogynecol J. 2008;19(9):1229–34.CrossRef
• Kim SO, Na HS, Kwon D, Joo SY, Kim HS, Ahn Y. Bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell transplantation enhances closing pressure and leak point pressure in a female urinary incontinence rat model. Urol Int. 2011;86(1):110–16. The authors demonstrated that allogenic MSCs can increase LPP in a rat model of SUI, providing preliminary data for clinical trials in this area.
Corcos J, Ghoniem G, Comiter C, Westney OL, Herschorn S. Durability of macroplastioue (R) injection for female stress urinary incontinence: 2 years experience. Neurourol Urodyn. 2010;29(2):275.
• Kinebuchi Y, Aizawa N, Imamura T, Ishizuka O, Igawa Y, Nishizawa O. Autologous bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell transplantation into injured rat urethral sphincter. Int J Urol. 2010;17(4):359–68. The authors treated rats that had undergone urethrolysis and periuethral cardiotoxin injection with autologous BMSCs. They found that the proportions of skeletal muscle cells and peripheral nerves in the urethra were significantly greater in the BMSC group compared to the control group, suggesting that stem cells can facilitate reinnervation of the urethra after a denervation injury.
• Zou XH, Zhi YL, Chen X, Jin HM, Wang LL, Jiang YZ et al. Mesenchymal stem cell seeded knitted silk sling for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence. Biomater. 2010;31(18):4872–879. The authors developed a tissue-engineered sling with bone marrow–derived mesenchymal stem cell–seeded degradable silk scaffold. They found that both the silk sling and tissue-engineered sling showed convincing functional effects for the treatment of SUI in a rat model. The better ligament-like tissue formation in the tissue-engineered sling suggested the potential for improved long-term function with less failure.
Usas A, Huard J. Muscle-derived stem cells for tissue engineering and regenerative therapy. Biomaterials. 2007;28(36):5401–6.PubMedCrossRef
Li Y. Isolating stem cells from soft musculoskeletal tissues. J Vis Exp. 2010;5(41)
Qu ZQ, Balkir L, van Deutekom JCT, Robbins PD, Pruchnic R, Huard J. Development of approaches to improve cell survival in myoblast transfer therapy. J Cell Biol. 1998;142(5):1257–67.PubMedCrossRef
Wu XY, Wang SL, Chen BL, An XL. Muscle-derived stem cells: isolation, characterization, differentiation, and application in cell and gene therapy. Cell Tissue Res. 2010;340(3):549–67.PubMedCrossRef
Deasy BM, Jankowski RJ, Huard J. Muscle-derived stem cells: characterization and potential for cell-mediated therapy. Blood Cell Mol Dis. 2001;27(5):924–33.CrossRef
Kwon D, Kim Y, Pruchnic R, Jankowski R, Usiene I, De Miguel F, et al. Periurethral cellular injection: comparison of muscle-derived progenitor cells and fibroblasts with regard to efficacy and tissue contractility in an animal model of stress urinary incontinence. Urology. 2006;68(2):449–54.PubMedCrossRef
Lee JY, Paik SY, Yuk SH, Lee JH, Ghil SH, Lee SS. Long term effects of muscle-derived stem cells on leak point pressure and closing pressure in rats with transected pudendal nerves. Mol Cell. 2004;18(3):309–13.
Xu Y, Song Y. Transplantation of muscle-derived stem cell plus fibrin glue restores urethral function in a pudendal nerve-transected rat model. Neurourol Urodyn. 2009;28(7):822–3.
Chancellor MB, Yokoyama T, Tirney S, Mattes CE, Ozawa H, Yoshimura N, et al. Preliminary results of myoblast injection into the urethra and bladder wall: a possible method for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence and impaired detrusor contractility. Neurourol Urodyn. 2000;19(3):279–87.PubMedCrossRef
Kajbafzadeh AM, Elmi A, Payabvash S, Salmasi AH, Saeedi P, Mohamadkhani A, et al. Transurethral autologous myoblast injection for treatment of urinary incontinence in children with classic bladder exstrophy. J Urol. 2008;180(3):1098–105.PubMedCrossRef
Strasser H, Marksteiner R, Margreiter E, Mitterberger M, Pinggera GM, Frauscher F, et al. Transurethral ultrasonography-guided injection of adult autologous stem cells versus transurethral endoscopic injection of collagen in treatment of urinary incontinence. World J Urol. 2007;25(4):385–92.PubMedCrossRef
Kleinert S, Horton R. Retraction-autologous myoblasts and fibroblasts for treatment of stress urinary incontinence: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2008;372(9641):789–90.PubMedCrossRef
Carr LK, Steele D, Steele S, Wagner D, Pruchnic R, Jankowski R, et al. 1-year follow-up of autologous muscle-derived stem cell injection pilot study to treat stress urinary incontinence. Int Urogynecol J. 2008;19(6):881–3.CrossRef
Peters K, Kaufman M, Dmochowski R, Carr L, Hershorn S, Fischer M, et al. Autologous muscle derived cell therapy for the treatment of female stress urinary incontinence: a multi-center experience. J Urol. 2011;185(4):e535–6.CrossRef
Roche R, Festy F, Fritel X. Stem cells for stress urinary incontinence: the adipose promise. J Cell Mol Med. 2010;14(1–2):135–42.PubMedCrossRef
Rodriguez LV, Alfonso Z, Zhang R, Leung J, Wu B, Ignarro LJ. Clonogenic multipotent stem cells in human adipose tissue differentiate into functional smooth muscle cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103(32):12167–72.PubMedCrossRef
•• Lin GT, Wang GF, Banie L, Ning HX, Shindel AW, Fandel TM et al. Treatment of stress urinary incontinence with adipose tissue-derived stem cells. Cytotherapy. 2010;12(1):88–95. The authors investigated whether transplantation of ADSCs can treat SUI in a rat model. They found that ADSC-treated groups had significantly higher elastin content than the control group, and within the ADSC-treated groups, rats with normal voiding pattern also had significantly higher elastin content than rats with voiding dysfunction. This suggests that proper elastin repair is important to restoration of function in treating SUI.
• Zhao W, Zhang C, Jin C, Zhang Z, Kong L, Xu W et al. Periurethral injection of autologous adipose-derived stem cells with controlled-release nerve growth factor for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence in a rat model. Eur Urol. 2011;59(1):155–63. The authors investigated if nerve growth factor facilitated the effect of ADSCs delivered periurethrally. They found significant improvements in LPP as well as in the amount of muscle and ganglia in the group that received nerve growth factor, suggesting that this and other growth factors could be utilized to facilitate recovery from SUI.
Menasch P, Alfieri O, Janssens S, McKenna W, Reichenspurner H, Trinquart L, et al. The myoblast autologous grafting in ischemic cardiomyopathy (MAGIC) trial—first randomized placebo-controlled study of myoblast transplantation. Circulation. 2008;117(9):1189–200.CrossRef
Yamamoto T, Gotoh M, Hattori R, Toriyama K, Kamei Y, Iwaguro H, et al. Periurethral injection of autologous adipose-derived stem cells for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence in patients undergoing radical prostatectomy: report of two initial cases (Retracted article. See vol. 17, pg. 896, 2010). Int J Urol. 2010;17(1):75–82.PubMedCrossRef
Rehman J, Traktuev D, Li JL, Merfeld-Clauss S, Temm-Grove CJ, Bovenkerk JE, et al. Secretion of angiogenic and antiapoptotic factors by human adipose stromal cells. Circulation. 2004;109(10):1292–8.PubMedCrossRef
Retraction. Periurethral injection of autologous adipose-derived stem cells for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence in patients undergoing radical prostatectomy: report of two initial cases. Int J Urol. 2010;17(10):896
Flynn A, Barry F, O'Brien T. UC blood-derived mesenchyrnal stromal cells: an overview. Cytotherapy. 2007;9(8):717–26.PubMedCrossRef
Roobrouck VD, Ulloa-Montoya F, Verfaillie CM. Self-renewal and differentiation capacity of young and aged stem cells. Exp Cell Res. 2008;314(9):1937–44.PubMedCrossRef
Kim JY, Jeon HB, Jang YS, Oh W, Jhang JW. Application of human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells in disease models. World J Stem Cells. 2010;2(2):34–8.PubMedCrossRef
Lim JJ, Jang JB, Kim JY, Moon SH, Lee CN, Lee KJ. Human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cell transplantation in rats with intrinsic sphincter deficiency. J Kor Med Sci. 2010;25(5):663–70.CrossRef
Lee CN, Jang JB, Kim JY, Koh C, Baek JY, Lee KJ. Human cord blood stem cell therapy for treatment of stress urinary incontinence. J Kor Med Sci. 2010;25(6):813–6.CrossRef
Jahoda CAB, Whitehouse CJ, Reynolds AJ, Hole N. Hair follicle dermal cells differentiate into adipogenic and osteogenic lineages. Exp Dermatol. 2003;12(6):849–59.PubMedCrossRef
Lavker RM, Sun TT, Oshima H, Barrandon Y, Akiyama M, Ferraris C, et al. Hair follicle stem cells. J Investig Dermatol Symp Proc. 2003;8(1):28–38.PubMedCrossRef
Drewa T, Joachimiak R, Kaznica A, Sarafian V, Sir J. Primary cultures from rat vibrissae as a potential cell source for in vitro construction of urinary bladder wall grafts. Transplant Proc. 2009;41(5):1932–5.PubMedCrossRef
Zhang YY, McNeill E, Tian H, Soker S, Andersson KE, Yoo JJ, et al. Urine derived cells are a potential source for urological tissue reconstruction. J Urol. 2008;180(5):2226–33.PubMedCrossRef