Current Urology Reports

, Volume 12, Issue 3, pp 237-242

First online:

Update on Prostate Brachytherapy: Long-term Outcomes and Treatment-related Morbidity

  • Johnny KaoAffiliated withFlorida Cancer Physicians Network, Florida Radiation Oncology Group Email author 
  • , Jamie A. CesarettiAffiliated withFlorida Radiation Oncology Group
  • , Nelson N. StoneAffiliated withMount Sinai School of Medicine
  • , Richard G. StockAffiliated withMount Sinai School of Medicine

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Current research in prostate brachytherapy focuses on five key concepts covered in this review. Transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate brachytherapy assisted by intraoperative treatment planning is the most advanced form of image-guided radiation delivery. Prostate brachytherapy alone for low-risk prostate cancer achieves lower prostate-specific antigen (PSA) nadirs than intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) or protons while maintaining durable biochemical control in about 90% of patients without late failures seen in surgically treated patients. As an organ-conserving treatment option, seed implant results in a lower rate of erectile dysfunction and urinary incontinence than surgery that has been validated in several recent prospective studies. Combined IMRT and seed implant has emerged as a rational and highly effective approach to radiation-dose escalation for intermediate- and high-risk prostate cancer. Preliminary results suggest that seed implantation may play a role in improving outcomes for historically poor-prognosis locally advanced and recurrent prostate cancers.


Prostate cancer Brachytherapy Seed implantation Quality of life