•• Campbell SC, Novick AC, Belldegrun A, et al.: Guideline for management of the clinical T1 renal mass. J Urol 2009, 182:1271–1279. The American Urological Association guidelines for the treatment of renal masses less than 7 cm address resection, ablation, and observation.
Jemal A, Siegel R, Ward E, et al.: Cancer statistics, 2009. CA Cancer J Clin 2009, 59:225–249.CrossRefPubMed
Mathew A, Devesa SS, Fraumeni JF Jr, Chow WH: Global increases in kidney cancer incidence, 1973–1992. Eur J Cancer Prev 2002, 11:171–178.CrossRefPubMed
Jayson M, Sanders H: Increased incidence of serendipitously discovered renal cell carcinoma. Urology 1998, 51:203–205.CrossRefPubMed
Hollingsworth JM, Miller DC, Daignault S, Hollenbeck BK: Rising incidence of small renal masses: a need to reassess treatment effect. J Natl Cancer Inst 2006, 98:1331–1334.PubMedCrossRef
Dunn MD, Portis AJ, Shalhav AL, et al.: Laparoscopic versus open radical nephrectomy: a 9-year experience. J Urol 2000, 164:1153–1159.CrossRefPubMed
Nadler RB, Loeb S, Clemens JQ, et al.: A prospective study of laparoscopic radical nephrectomy for T1 tumors: is transperitoneal, retroperitoneal or hand assisted the best approach? J Urol 2006, 175:1230–1233; discussion 1234.
Hollenbeck BK, Taub DA, Miller DC, et al.: National utilization trends of partial nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma: a case of underutilization? Urology 2006, 67:254–259.CrossRefPubMed
Lee CT, Katz J, Shi W, et al.: Surgical management of renal tumors 4 cm or less in a contemporary cohort. J Urol 2000, 163:730–736.CrossRefPubMed
Lau WK, Blute ML, Weaver AL, et al.: Matched comparison of radical nephrectomy vs nephron-sparing surgery in patients with unilateral renal cell carcinoma and a normal contralateral kidney. Mayo Clin Proc 2000, 75:1236–1242.CrossRefPubMed
Leibovich BC, Blute ML, Cheville JC, et al.: Nephron sparing surgery for appropriately selected renal cell carcinoma between 4 and 7 cm results in outcome similar to radical nephrectomy. J Urol 2004, 171:1066–1070.CrossRefPubMed
Dash A, Vickers AJ, Schachter LR, et al.: Comparison of outcomes in elective partial vs radical nephrectomy for clear cell renal cell carcinoma of 4–7 cm. BJU Int 2006, 97:939–945.CrossRefPubMed
Gill IS, Kavoussi LR, Lane BR, et al.: Comparison of 1,800 laparoscopic and open partial nephrectomies for single renal tumors. J Urol 2007, 178:41–46.CrossRefPubMed
Kunkle DA, Uzzo RG: Cryoablation or radiofrequency ablation of the small renal mass: a meta-analysis. Cancer 2008, 113:2671–2680.CrossRefPubMed
Gill IS, Remer EM, Hasan WA, et al.: Renal cryoablation: outcome at 3 years. J Urol 2005, 173:1903–1907.CrossRefPubMed
Davol PE, Fulmer BR, Rukstalis DB: Long-term results of cryoablation for renal cancer and complex renal masses. Urology 2006, 68(Suppl 1):2–6.CrossRefPubMed
Matin SF, Ahrar K, Cadeddu JA, et al.: Residual and recurrent disease following renal energy ablative therapy: a multi-institutional study. J Urol 2006, 176:1973–1977.CrossRefPubMed
McKiernan J, Simmons R, Katz J, Russo P: Natural history of chronic renal insufficiency after partial and radical nephrectomy. Urology 2002, 59:816–820.CrossRefPubMed
Thompson RH, Boorjian SA, Lohse CM, et al.: Radical nephrectomy for pT1a renal masses may be associated with decreased overall survival compared with partial nephrectomy. J Urol 2008, 179:468–471; discussion 472–473.
Huang WC, Levey AS, Serio AM, et al.: Chronic kidney disease after nephrectomy in patients with renal cortical tumours: a retrospective cohort study. Lancet Oncol 2006, 7:735–740.CrossRefPubMed
Go AS, Chertow GM, Fan D, et al.: Chronic kidney disease and the risks of death, cardiovascular events, and hospitalization. N Engl J Med 2004, 351:1296–1305.CrossRefPubMed
Belldegrun A, Tsui KH, DeKernion JB, Smith RB: Efficacy of nephron-sparing surgery for renal cell carcinoma: analysis based on the new 1997 tumor-node-metastasis staging system. J Clin Oncol 1999, 17:2868–2875.PubMed
Hafez KS, Fergany AF, Novick AC: Nephron sparing surgery for localized renal cell carcinoma: impact of tumor size on patient survival, tumor recurrence and TNM staging. J Urol 1999, 162:1930–1933.CrossRefPubMed
• Kunkle DA, Egleston BL, Uzzo RG: Excise, ablate or observe: the small renal mass dilemma–a meta-analysis and review. J Urol 2008, 179:1227–1233; discussion 1233–1234. This excellent review discusses the treatment modalities available for small renal masses.
• Rini BI: Metastatic renal cell carcinoma: many treatment options, one patient. J Clin Oncol 2009, 27:3225–3234. This is an excellent review of systemic therapy for metastatic RCC.
Whang M, O’Toole K, Bixon R, et al.: The incidence of multifocal renal cell carcinoma in patients who are candidates for partial nephrectomy. J Urol 1995, 154:968–970; discussion 970–971.
• Sudarshan S, Linehan WM: Genetic basis of cancer of the kidney. Semin Oncol 2006, 33:544–551. This is a concise primer on hereditary forms of kidney cancer.
Ansari MS, Gupta NP, Kumar P: von Hippel-Lindau disease with bilateral multiple renal cell carcinoma managed by right radical nephrectomy and left repeat partial nephrectomy. Int Urol Nephrol 2003, 35:471–473.CrossRefPubMed
Novick AC, Streem SB: Long-term followup after nephron sparing surgery for renal cell carcinoma in von Hippel-Lindau disease. J Urol 1992, 147:1488–1490.PubMed
Steinbach F, Novick AC, Zincke H, et al.: Treatment of renal cell carcinoma in von Hippel-Lindau disease: a multicenter study. J Urol 1995, 153:1812–1816.CrossRefPubMed
Johnson A, Sudarshan S, Liu J, et al.: Feasibility and outcomes of repeat partial nephrectomy. J Urol 2008, 180:89–93; discussion 93.
Pasticier G, Timsit MO, Badet L, et al.: Nephron-sparing surgery for renal cell carcinoma: detailed analysis of complications over a 15-year period. Eur Urol 2006, 49:485–490.CrossRefPubMed
Ray ER, Turney BW, Singh R, et al.: Open partial nephrectomy: outcomes from two UK centres. BJU Int 2006, 97:1211–1215.CrossRefPubMed
Magera JS Jr, Frank I, Lohse CM, et al.: Analysis of repeat nephron sparing surgery as a treatment option in patients with a solid mass in a renal remnant. J Urol 2008, 179:853–856.CrossRefPubMed
United States Renal Data System: Annual data report 2009. Available at http://www.usrds.org/adr.htm
. Accessed October 2009.
Liu N, Khurana K, Sundarshan S, et al.: Surgical, functional, and oncologic outcomes of repeat partial nephrectomy on a solitary kidney. Presented at the 9th Annual Meeting of the Society of Urologic Oncology. Bethesda, MD; December 4–5, 2008.
Bratslavsky G, Liu JJ, Johnson AD, et al.: Salvage partial nephrectomy for hereditary renal cancer: feasibility and outcomes. J Urol 2008, 179:67–70.CrossRefPubMed
Nguyen CT, Lane BR, Kaouk JH, et al.: Surgical salvage of renal cell carcinoma recurrence after thermal ablative therapy. J Urol 2008, 180:104–109; discussion 109.
Kowalczyk KJ, Hooper HB, Linehan WM, et al.: Partial nephrectomy after previous radio frequency ablation: the National Cancer Institute Experience. J Urol 2009, 182:2158–2163.CrossRefPubMed
Walther MM, Choyke PL, Glenn G, et al.: Renal cancer in families with hereditary renal cancer: prospective analysis of a tumor size threshold for renal parenchymal sparing surgery. J Urol 1999, 161:1475–1479.CrossRefPubMed
Duffey BG, Choyke PL, Glenn G, et al.: The relationship between renal tumor size and metastases in patients with von Hippel-Lindau disease. J Urol 2004, 172:63–65.CrossRefPubMed
• Kutikov A, Uzzo RG: The R.E.N.A.L. nephrometry score: a comprehensive standardized system for quantitating renal tumor size, location and depth. J Urol 2009, 182:844–853. This article discusses a novel metric for measuring the anatomic complexity of a renal mass.
Boris R, Proano M, Linehan WM, et al.: Initial experience with robot assisted partial nephrectomy for multiple renal masses. J Urol 2009, 182:1280–1286.CrossRefPubMed
National Cancer Institute: National Cancer Institute search for clinical trials. Available at http://www.cancer.gov/clinicaltrials/search/
. Accessed October 2009.
Herring JC, Enquist EG, Chernoff A, et al.: Parenchymal sparing surgery in patients with hereditary renal cell carcinoma: 10-year experience. J Urol 2001, 165:777–781.CrossRefPubMed
Ghavamian R, Cheville JC, Lohse CM, et al.: Renal cell carcinoma in the solitary kidney: an analysis of complications and outcome after nephron sparing surgery. J Urol 2002, 168:454–459.CrossRefPubMed
Saranchuk JW, Touijer AK, Hakimian P, et al.: Partial nephrectomy for patients with a solitary kidney: the Memorial Sloan-Kettering experience. BJU Int 2004, 94:1323–1328.CrossRefPubMed
Fergany AF, Saad IR, Woo L, Novick AC: Open partial nephrectomy for tumor in a solitary kidney: experience with 400 cases. J Urol 2006, 175:1630–1633; discussion 1633.
Jacobsohn KM, Ahrar K, Wood CG, Matin SF: Is radiofrequency ablation safe for solitary kidneys? Urology 2007, 69:819–823; discussion 823.
Lane BR, Novick AC, Babineau D, et al.: Comparison of laparoscopic and open partial nephrectomy for tumor in a solitary kidney. J Urol 2008, 179:847–851; discussion 852.