Current Urology Reports

, Volume 7, Issue 3, pp 181-185

First online:

Prostate cancer detection strategies

  • Timothy C. BrandAffiliated withDepartment of Urology, University of Texas Health Science Center Email author 
  • , Javier Hernandez
  • , Edith D. Canby-Hagino
  • , Joseph W. Basler
  • , Ian M. Thompson

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Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy in men and, as a result, there has been a nationwide emphasis on screening and detection. With the widespread use of the prostate-specific antigen (PSA), prostate cancer screening effectively detects localized prostate cancer. However, recent reports have identified a significant proportion of prostate cancer in men with low PSA levels. Many of these cancers are higher-grade malignancies. Consequently, PSA may function more effectively as a screening tool when applied over a continuum that is associated with degree of risk, rather than a binary measure. Other markers are currently being investigated. Ideally, a marker will identify the malignancy that is a clinical threat, thereby avoiding intervention for indolent disease. Prevention strategies may be employed for higher-risk patients, and these strategies eventually may be tailored to genetic or other risks.