Article

Current Rheumatology Reports

, 13:440

First online:

Synovial Tissue Heterogeneity and Peripheral Blood Biomarkers

  • Serena BugattiAffiliated withDivision and Laboratory of Rheumatology, University of Pavia School of Medicine, IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo Foundation
  • , Antonio ManzoAffiliated withDivision and Laboratory of Rheumatology, University of Pavia School of Medicine, IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo Foundation
  • , Michele BombardieriAffiliated withWilliam Harvey Research Institute, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London
  • , Barbara VitoloAffiliated withDivision and Laboratory of Rheumatology, University of Pavia School of Medicine, IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo Foundation
  • , Frances HumbyAffiliated withWilliam Harvey Research Institute, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London
  • , Stephen KellyAffiliated withWilliam Harvey Research Institute, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London
  • , Carlomaurizio MontecuccoAffiliated withDivision and Laboratory of Rheumatology, University of Pavia School of Medicine, IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo Foundation
  • , Costantino PitzalisAffiliated withWilliam Harvey Research Institute, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London Email author 

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Abstract

Rheumatoid arthritis is characterized by multiple pathobiological processes and heterogeneous clinical phenotypes. Not surprisingly, the inflamed synovium harbors an equally complex pathology. This includes variability in infiltrating and resident cell populations, spatial arrangements, and cell–cell interactions, as well as gene expression profiles. Remarkable progress in our understanding of the many facets of tissue heterogeneity has been facilitated by the increasing availability of patients’ material and the development of advanced research technologies. The next challenge is to capitalize on the large amount of data generated to elucidate the specific pathogenic pathways disparately activated in different patients and/or different phases of the disease. When tissue pathology can be reliably explored through noninvasive circulating biomarkers, then the circle will be closed. We attempt to highlight key advances in the understanding of synovial tissue heterogeneity in rheumatoid arthritis and summarize novel perspectives in synovial biomarker discovery in relation to peripheral blood.

Keywords

Rheumatoid arthritis Synovial membrane Synovial tissue Heterogeneity Peripheral blood Biomarker