Update on Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Tic Disorders: A Review of the Current Literature
First Online: 27 July 2011 DOI:
10.1007/s11920-011-0223-1 Cite this article as: Simpson, H.A., Jung, L. & Murphy, T.K. Curr Psychiatry Rep (2011) 13: 351. doi:10.1007/s11920-011-0223-1 Abstract
Tic disorders impact quality of life, but when they are co-occurring with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, the combined impact takes a toll on psychosocial functioning and adds another layer of complexity to treatment approaches. A review of the current literature supports evidence of a unique relationship between comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and tic disorders, emphasizing the intricate phenotype and impairment associated with these co-occurring conditions. The complexity of these symptoms requires careful diagnosis and appropriate treatment as determined by the level of impairment and can include pharmacotherapy, behavioral interventions, or a combination of therapies. To achieve the greatest benefits in improving quality of life and eliminating further comorbidity, an ideal treatment plan would include a comprehensive evaluation as well as a hierarchical treatment approach involving education of the child, family, and teachers; careful medication management; and cognitive and behavioral training.
Keywords Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder ADHD Tic disorders Tourette syndrome Treatment Comorbidity References Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance
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