Current Psychiatry Reports

, 13:333

Update on Environmental Risk Factors for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

  • Tanya E. Froehlich
  • Julia S. Anixt
  • Irene M. Loe
  • Vilawan Chirdkiatgumchai
  • Lisa Kuan
  • Richard C. Gilman
Article

DOI: 10.1007/s11920-011-0221-3

Cite this article as:
Froehlich, T.E., Anixt, J.S., Loe, I.M. et al. Curr Psychiatry Rep (2011) 13: 333. doi:10.1007/s11920-011-0221-3

Abstract

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent neurobehavioral disorder affecting 5% to 10% of children. Although considered to be a highly familial disorder, ADHD heritability estimates of 60% to 80% highlight the considerable role that environmental factors may still play in disorder susceptibility. Proposed ADHD environmental risk factors include prenatal substance exposures, heavy metal and chemical exposures, nutritional factors, and lifestyle/psychosocial factors. This paper reviews the literature published in 2010 investigating the association between environmental risk factors and ADHD or related symptomatology. Sources of risk factor exposure and the proposed mechanism by which each exposure is linked to ADHD-related neurobehavioral changes are also reported. Methodologic limitations of the current literature are discussed, and guidelines for future study are proposed. An improved understanding of the role that environmental factors play in ADHD etiology is critical to future ADHD prevention efforts.

Keywords

ADHD Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder Hyperactivity Inattention Environment Environmental exposures Adverse effects Risk factors Gene–environment interactions Pregnancy Prenatal Nutrition Diet Psychosocial adversity Lead Heavy metals Chemicals 

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tanya E. Froehlich
    • 1
  • Julia S. Anixt
    • 1
  • Irene M. Loe
    • 2
  • Vilawan Chirdkiatgumchai
    • 1
  • Lisa Kuan
    • 1
  • Richard C. Gilman
    • 1
  1. 1.Cincinnati Children’s HospitalCincinnatiUSA
  2. 2.Stanford University School of MedicinePalo AltoUSA

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