Current Psychiatry Reports

, Volume 13, Issue 5, pp 364–373

Updates on Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Learning Disorders


DOI: 10.1007/s11920-011-0211-5

Cite this article as:
Semrud-Clikeman, M. & Bledsoe, J. Curr Psychiatry Rep (2011) 13: 364. doi:10.1007/s11920-011-0211-5


The relationship of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to learning disorders was reviewed and included reading disability, mathematics learning disability, and nonverbal learning disability. Genetic, neuroimaging, and neuropsychological functioning were examined for each disorder, along with a discussion of any existing literature when ADHD co-occurred with the disorder. All the disorders were found to frequently co-occur with ADHD. A review of the underlying neuroanatomic and neurofunctional data found specific structures that frequently co-occur in these disorders with others that are specific to the individual diagnosis. Aberrations in structure and/or function were found for the caudate, corpus callosum, and cerebellum, making these structures sensitive for the disorder but not specific. Suggestions for future research, particularly in relation to intervention, are provided.


ADHDReading disabilityRDMathematicsLearning disorderNonverbal learning disorder

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychiatryMichigan State UniversityEast LansingUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyMichigan State UniversityEast LansingUSA