Fukuda K, Straus SE, Hickie I, et al.: The chronic fatigue syndrome: a comprehensive approach to its definition and study. International Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Study Group. Ann Intern Med 1994, 121:953–959.PubMedGoogle Scholar
Wolfe F, Smythe HA, Yunus MB, et al.: The American College of Rheumatology 1990 criteria for the classification fibromyalgia. Report of Multicenter Criteria Committee. Arthritis Rheum 1990, 33:160–172.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Creavin ST, Dunn KM, Mallen CD, et al.: Co-occurrence and associations of pain and fatigue in a community sample of Dutch adults. Eur J Pain 2009 Jun 17 (Epub ahead of print).
Van Houdenhove B, Luyten P: Fibromyalgia and related syndromes characterized by stress intolerance and pain hypersensitivity: do we need a new nosology? Curr Rheumatol Rev 2007, 3:304–308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Carruthers BM, Jain AK, De Meirleir K, et al.: Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome: clinical working case definition, diagnostic and treatment protocols. J Chronic Fatigue Syndr 2003, 11:7–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bidari A, Ghavidel-Parsa B, Ghalehbaghi B: Reliability of ACR criteria over time to differentiate classic fibromyalgia from nonspecific widespread pain syndrome: a 6-month prospective cohort study. Mod Rheumatol 2009, 19:663–669.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Wilke WS: New developments in the diagnosis of fibromyalgia syndrome: say goodbye to tender points? Cleve Clin J Med 2009, 76:345–352.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Wilson HD, Starz TW, Robinson JP, Turk DC: Heterogeneity within the fibromyalgia population: theoretical implications of variable tender point severity ratings. J Rheumatol 2010 (in press).
Aslakson E, Vollmer-Conna U, Reeves WC, White PD: Replication of an empirical approach to delineate the heterogeneity of chronic unexplained fatigue. Popul Health Metr 2009, 7:17.Google Scholar
Hooper M: Myalgic encephalomyelitis a review with emphasis on key findings in biomedical research. J Clin Pathol 2007, 60:466–471.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Van Houdenhove B, Van Hoof E, Becq K, et al.: A comparison of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome in two ‘ideologically’ contrasting clinics. J Nerv Ment Dis 2009, 197:348–353.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Griffith JP, Zarrouf FA: A systematic review of chronic fatigue syndrome: don’t assume it’s depression. Prim Care Companion J Clin Psychiatry 2008, 10:120–128.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Arnold LM: Understanding fatigue in major depressive disorder and other medical disorders. Psychosomatics 2008, 49:185–190.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
• Pae CU, Luyten P, Marks DM, et al.: The relationship between fibromyalgia and major depressive disorder: a comprehensive review. Curr Med Res Opin 2008, 24:2359–2371. This is a thoughtful discussion of the complex clinical and neurobiological relationships between FM and depression, including an extensive reference list
Juruena MF, Cleare AJ: Overlap between atypical depression, seasonal affective disorder and chronic fatigue syndrome. Rev Bras Psiquiatr 2007, 29(Suppl 1):S19–S26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
Bair MJ, Robinson RL, Katon W, Kroenke K: Depression and pain comorbidity: a literature review. Arch Intern Med 2003, 163:2433–2445.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Ohayon MM: Pain sensitivity, depression, and sleep deprivation: links with serotoninergic dysfunction. J Psychiatr Res 2009, 43:1243–1245.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Nater UM, Lin JM, Maloney EM, et al.: Psychiatric comorbidity in persons with chronic fatigue syndrome identified from the Georgia population. Psychosom Med 2009, 71:557–565.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Hamilton WT, Gallagher AM, Thomas JM, White PD: Risk markers for both chronic fatigue and irritable bowel syndromes: a prospective case-control study in primary care. Psychol Med 2009, 39:1913–1921.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Hudson JI, Arnold LM, Keck PE, et al.: Family study of fibromyalgia and affective spectrum disorder. Biol Psychiatry 2004, 56:884–891.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
•• Heim C, Newport DJ, Mletzko T, et al.: The link between childhood trauma and depression: insights from HPA axis studies in humans. Psychoneuroendocrinology 2008, 33:693–710. This is a landmark article reviewing current evidence from animal and human studies for the neurobiological determination of vulnerability for depression and depression-like syndromes (eg, CFS/FM) by early-life trauma and adversities.
Heim C, Nater UM, Maloney E, et al.: Childhood trauma and risk for chronic fatigue syndrome: association with neuroendocrine dysfunction. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2009, 66:72–80.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Weissbecker I, Floyd A, Dedert E, et al.: Childhood trauma and diurnal cortisol disruption in fibromyalgia syndrome. Psychoneuroendocrinology 2006, 31:312–324.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Van Den Eede F, Moorkens G, Hulstijn W, et al.: Combined dexamethasone/corticotropin-releasing factor test in chronic fatigue syndrome. Psychol Med 2008, 38:963–973.Google Scholar
Majer M, Jones JF, Unger ER, et al.: Perception versus polysomnographic assessment of sleep in CFS and non-fatigued control subjects: results from a population-based study. BMC Neurol 2007, 7:40.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Togo F, Natelson BH, Cherniack NS, et al.: Sleep structure and sleepiness in chronic fatigue syndrome with or without coexisting fibromyalgia. Arthritis Res Ther 2008, 10:R56.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Decker MJ, Tabassum H, Lin JM, Reeves WC: Electroencephalographic correlates of chronic fatigue syndrome. Behav Brain Funct 2009, 5:43.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Boneva RS, Decker MJ, Maloney EM, et al.: Higher heart rate and reduced heart rate variability persist during sleep in chronic fatigue syndrome: a population-based study. Auton Neurosci 2007, 137:94–101.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
•• Staud R: Heart rate variability as a biomarker of fibromyalgia syndrome. Fut Rheumatol 2008, 3:475–483. This interesting review summarizes current knowledge about autonomous nervous system disturbances in FM and gives a new perspective on the use of biomarkers related to stress system functioning (eg, heart rate variability) for diagnosis and outcome of clinical trials.
Van Houdenhove B, Luyten P: Stress, depression and fibromyalgia. Acta Neurol Belg 2006, 106:149–156.PubMedGoogle Scholar
Kato K, Sullivan PF, Evengard B, Pedersen NL: Premorbid predictors of chronic fatigue. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2006, 63:1267–1272.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Kerr JR, Mattey DL: Preexisting psychological stress predicts acute and chronic fatigue and arthritis following symptomatic parvovirus B19 infection. Clin Infect Dis 2008, 46:e83–e87.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Luyten P, Van Houdenhove B, Cosyns N, Van den Broeck A: Are patients with chronic fatigue syndrome perfectionistic—or were they? A case-control study. Pers Individ Dif 2006, 40:1473–1483.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Van Campen E, Van Den Eede F, Moorkens G, et al.: Assessment of personality in chronic fatigue syndrome with Temperament and Character Inventory. Psychosomatics 2009, 50:147–154.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Fukuda S, Kuratsune H, Tajima S, et al.: Premorbid personality in chronic fatigue syndrome as determined by the Temperament and Character Inventory. Compr Psychiatry 2010, 51:78–85.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Van Houdenhove B, Bruyninckx K, Luyten P: In search of a new balance. Can high “action-proneness” in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome be changed by a multidisciplinary group treatment? J Psychosom Res 2006, 60:623–625.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
• Harvey SB, Wadsworth M, Wessely S, Hotopf M: Etiology of chronic fatigue syndrome: testing popular hypotheses using a national birth cohort study. Psychosom Med 2008, 70:488–495. This was a prospective study showing that individuals who exercise frequently are more likely to report a diagnosis of CFS in later life, which may be due to the direct effects of this behavior or associated personality factors. The authors also found that remaining active despite increasing fatigue may be a crucial step in the development of CFS. This study supports common clinical observations about CFS patients’ premorbid “overactive” lifestyle and preoccupation with achievement.
Turk Charles S, Gatz M, Kato K, Petersen NL: Physical health 25 years later: the predictive ability of neuroticism. Health Psychol 2008, 27:369–378.
Friedberg F, Quick J: Alexithymia in chronic fatigue syndrome: associations with momentary, recall, and retrospective measures of somatic complaints and emotions. Psychosom Med 2007, 69:54–60.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Van Heule S, Vandenbergen J, Desmet M, et al.: Alexithymia and core conflictual relationship themes: a study in a chronically fatigued primary care population. Int J Psychiatry Med 2007, 37:87–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
• Van Geelen SM, Sinnema G, Hermans HJ, Kuis W: Personality and chronic fatigue syndrome: methodological and conceptual issues. Clin Psychol Rev 2007, 27:885–903. This article rightly underscores the current lack of knowledge of the role played by personality factors in determining vulnerability in CFS. The authors also discuss several methodological difficulties that hamper studies in this domain.
Courjaret J, Schotte CK, Wijnants H, et al.: Chronic fatigue syndrome and DSM-IV personality disorders. J Psychosom Res 2009, 66:13–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
Van Houdenhove B, Van Den Eede F, Luyten P: Does hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis hypofunction in chronic fatigue syndrome reflect a ‘crash’ in the stress system? Med Hypotheses 2009, 72:701–705.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Wingenfeld K, Heim C, Schmidt I, et al.: HPA axis reactivity and lymphocyte glucocorticoid sensitivity in fibromyalgia syndrome and chronic pelvic pain. Psychosom Med 2008, 70:65–72.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Rajeevan MS, Smith AK, Dimulescu I, et al.: Glucocorticoid receptor polymorphisms and haplotypes associated with chronic fatigue syndrome. Genes Brain Behav 2007, 6:167–176.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Vargas-Alarcón G, Fragoso JM, Cruz-Robles D, et al.: Association of adrenergic receptor gene polymorphisms with different fibromyalgia syndrome domains. Arthritis Rheum 2009, 60:2169–2173.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Jensen KB, Kosek E, Petzke F, et al.: Evidence of dysfunctional pain inhibition in fibromyalgia reflected in rACC during provoked pain. Pain 2009, 144:95–100.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Meeus M, Nijs J, Van de Wauwer N, et al.: Diffuse noxious inhibitory control is delayed in chronic fatigue syndrome: an experimental study. Pain 2008, 139:439–448.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
• Van Houdenhove B, Luyten P: Customizing treatment in chronic fatigue syndrome/fibromyalgia: the role of perpetuating factors. Psychosomatics 2008, 45:470–477. This is a literature review on the etiopathogenesis of CFS/FM with a focus on different perpetuating factors, and a pragmatic perspective on customizing treatment based on identifying these factors in individual patients.
Knoop H, Bleijenberg G, Gielissen MF, et al.: Is a full recovery possible after cognitive behavioural therapy for chronic fatigue syndrome? Psychother Psychosom 2007, 76:171–176.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Van Houdenhove B, Luyten P: Treatment of chronic fatigue syndrome: how to find a ‘new equilibrium’? Patient Educ Couns 2009, 77:153–154.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
•• Reid SF, Chalder T, Cleare A, et al.: Chronic fatigue syndrome. Clin Evid (Online). 2008, pii:1101. This prestigious database, which is updated regularly, discusses various evidence-based and other treatment strategies in CFS.
• Häuser W, Bernardy K, Arnold B, et al.: Efficacy of multi-component treatment in fibromyalgia syndrome: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials. Arthritis Rheum 2009, 61:216–224. This is an impressive meta-analysis on treatments combining various strategies in FM. The authors found strong evidence for reduction of pain, fatigue, depressive symptoms, and limitations to health-related quality of life, and improvement of self-efficacy, pain, and physical fitness after treatment. However, most of these benefits were not maintained in the long run.
Twisk FH, Maes M: A review on cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and graded exercise therapy (GET) in myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) / chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS): CBT/GET is not only ineffective and not evidence-based, but also potentially harmful for many patients with ME/CFS. Neuro Endocrinol Lett 2009, 30:284–299.PubMedGoogle Scholar
Heins MJ, Knoop H, Prins JB: Possible detrimental effects of cognitive behavioral therapy for chronic fatigue syndrome. Psychother Psychosom 2010 (in press).
• Nijs J, Paul L, Wallman K: Chronic fatigue syndrome: an approach combining self-management with graded exercise to avoid exacerbations. J Rehabil Med 2008, 40:241–247. This is an excellent didactic paper that describes the benefits of combining activity management and GET, including concrete guidelines for “pacing” exercises according to patients’ effort tolerance.
Pae C-U, Marks DM, Patkar AA, et al.: Pharmacological treatment of chronic fatigue syndrome: focusing on the role of antidepressants. Expert Opin Pharmacother 2009, 10:1561–1570.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Van Houdenhove B, Pae CU, Luyten P: Chronic fatigue syndrome: is there a role for non-antidepressant pharmacotherapy ? Curr Opin Pharmacother 2010 (in press).
Van Koulil S, Effting M, Kraaimaat FW, et al.: Cognitive-behavioural therapies and exercise programmes for patients with fibromyalgia: state of the art and future directions. Ann Rheum Dis 2007, 66:571–581.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Romano JM, Jensen MP, Schmaling KB, et al.: Illness behaviors in patients with unexplained chronic fatigue are associated with significant other responses. J Behav Med 2009, 32:558–569.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Parrish BP, Zautra AJ, Davis MC: The role of positive and negative interpersonal events on daily fatigue in women with fibromyalgia, rheumatoid arthritis, and osteoarthritis. Health Psychol 2008, 27:694–702.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Friedberg F, Sohl S: Cognitive-behavior therapy in chronic fatigue syndrome: is improvement related to increased physical activity? J Clin Psychol 2009, 65:423–442.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Glover DS, Brown GP, Fairburn CG, Shafran R: A preliminary evaluation of cognitive-behaviour therapy for clinical perfectionism: a case series. Br J Clin Psychol 2007, 46:85–94.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Lombardi VC, Ruscetti FW, Das Gupta J, et al.: Detection of an infectious retrovirus, XMRV, in blood cells of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. Science 2009, 326:585–589.Google Scholar
McClure M, Wessely S: Chronic fatigue syndrome and human retrovirus XMRV. BMJ 2010, 340:c1099.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar