Psychosis in children with velocardiofacial syndrome (22q11.2 deletion syndrome)
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- Jolin, E.M., Weller, R.A. & Weller, E.B. Curr Psychiatry Rep (2009) 11: 99. doi:10.1007/s11920-009-0016-y
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Velocardiofacial syndrome, now known as 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22qDS), is estimated to affect more than 700 children born in the United States each year. Some clinical studies have found increased rates of schizophrenia in adults with 22qDS. However, these studies have been limited by small sample size and possible ascertainment bias. The psychiatric disorders most commonly reported in children and adolescents with 22qDS have been attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, anxiety disorders, and major depression. Psychotic symptoms have been observed in 14% to 28% of children with 22qDS, but their clinical significance remains uncertain. A 5-year follow-up study of 22qDS children who reported psychotic symptoms at baseline found they had an increased risk for a subsequent psychotic disorder. Thus, a broad differential diagnosis should be considered when 22qDS children present with psychotic symptoms. Longitudinal studies are needed to better understand the full extent of the psychopathology associated with 22qDS.