Donoghue D, Australian and New Zealand Neonatal Network: Report of the Australian and New Zealand Neonatal Network. Australian and New Zealand Neonatal Network: Sydney, Australia; 2003.
Barker DP, Rutter N: Exposure to invasive procedures in neonatal intensive care unit admissions. Arch Dis Child 1995, 72:F47–F48.Google Scholar
• Carbajal R, Rousset A, Danan C, et al.: Epidemiology and treatment of painful procedures in neonates in intensive care units. JAMA 2008, 300:60–70.This epidemiological study of neonatal pain exposure and pain management practices in 13 units in France highlighted the ongoing burden of pain in sick preterm and term infants nursed in NICUs and PICUs
Harrison D, Loughnan P, Johnston L: Pain assessment and procedural pain management practices in neonatal units in Australia. J Paediatr Child Health 2006, 42:6–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Harrison D, Loughnan P, Manias E, Johnston L: Analgesics administered during minor painful procedures in a cohort of hospitalized infants: a prospective clinical audit. J Pain 2009, 10:715–722.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Rennix C, Manjunatha CM, Ibhanesebhor SE : Pain relief during common neonatal procedures: a survey. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2004, 89:F563.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Anand KJS, Soriano SG: Anesthetic agents and the immature brain: are these toxic or therapeutic? Anesthesiology 2004, 101:527–530.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Grunau RE, Holsti L, Haley DW, et al.: Neonatal procedural pain exposure predicts lower cortisol and behavioral reactivity in preterm infants in the NICU. Pain 2005, 113:293–300.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
• Yamada J, Stinson J, Lamba J, et al.: A review of systematic reviews on pain interventions in hospitalized infants. Pain Res Manag 2008, 13:413–420. This review of systematic reviews of pain-reducing interventions in infants is a unique form of knowledge synthesis of large volumes of published systematic reviews relating to a common topic
Anand KJ, Aranda JV, Berde CB, et al.: Summary proceedings from the neonatal pain-control group. Pediatrics 2006, 117:S9–S22.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Pillai-Ridell RR, Stevens B, McKeever P, et al.: Chronic pain in hospitalized infants: health professionals’ perspectives. J Pain 2009, 10:1217–1225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Fetus and Newborn, American Academy of Pediatrics Section on Surgery, Canadian Paediatric Society Fetus and Newborn Committee, et al.: Prevention and management of pain in the neonate: an update. Pediatrics 2006, 118:2231–2241.
Axelin A, Ojajärvi U, Viitanen J, Lehtonen L: Promoting shorter duration of ventilator treatment decreases the number of painful procedures in preterm infants. Acta Paediatr 2009, 98:1751–1755.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
O’Brien MA, Rogers S, Jamtvedt G, et al.: Educational outreach visits: effects on professional practice and health care outcomes. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007, 4:CD000409.
Lee SK, McMillan DD, Ohlsson A, et al.: Variations in practice and outcomes in the Canadian NICU network: 1996-1997. Pediatrics 2000, 106:1070–1079.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Guyatt GH, Oxman AD, Vist GE, et al.: GRADE: an emerging consensus on rating quality of evidence and strength of recommendations. BMJ 2008, 336:924–926.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Stevens B, Yamada J, Ohlsson A: Sucrose for analgesia in newborn infants undergoing painful procedures. In The Cochrane Library. Oxford: Update Software; 2009 (in press).
Current Controlled Trials, Ltd.: The metaRegister of Controlled Trials. Available at http://www.controlled-trials.com/mrct
. Accessed November 2009.
Blass E, Ciaramitaro V: A new look at some old mechanisms in human newborns. Monogr Soc Res Child Dev 1994, 59:I–V, 1–81.
Anand KJ, International Evidence-Based Group for Neonatal Pain: Consensus statement for the prevention and management of pain in the newborn. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2001, 155:173–180.PubMedGoogle Scholar
Harrison D, Stevens B, Johnston C: Sucrose utilization during painful procedures in hospitalized infants in Canada. To be presented at the 8th International Symposium on Pediatric Pain. Acapulco, Mexico; March 7–11, 2010.
• Harrison D, Loughnan P, Manias E, et al.: Repeated doses of sucrose in infants continue to reduce procedural pain during prolonged hospitalizations. Nurs Res 2009, 58:427–434. This study describes the longest period of sucrose use, spanning between 1 and 5 months. This longitudinal study observed infants over an entire NICU hospitalization, with results showing ongoing effectiveness of sucrose during heel lancing as evident by low behavioral pain scores and a lack of any increase over the period of observation
Johnston CC, Filion F, Snider L, et al.: Routine sucrose analgesia during the first week of life in neonates younger than 31 weeks’ postconceptional age. Pediatrics 2002, 110:523–528.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Mucignat V, Ducrocq S, Lebas F, et al.: Analgesic effects of EMLA cream and saccharose solution for subcutaneous injections in preterm newborns: a prospective study of 265 injections. Archives de Pediatrie 2004, 11:921–925.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Stevens B, Yamada J, Beyene J, et al.: Consistent management of repeated procedural pain with sucrose in preterm neonates: is it effective and safe for repeated use over time? Clin J Pain 2005, 21:543–548.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Allen KD, White DD, Walburn JN: Sucrose as an analgesic agent for infants during immunization injections. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 1996, 150:270–274.PubMedGoogle Scholar
Dilli D, Küçük I, Dallar Y: Interventions to reduce pain during vaccination in infancy. J Pediatr 2009, 154:385–390.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Royal Children’s Hospital Melbourne: Clinical guidelines (hospital): oral sucrose for procedural pain management in infants. Available at http://www.rch.org.au/rchcpg/index.cfm?doc_id=8590
. Accessed December 2009.
Harrison D: Oral sucrose for pain management in the paediatric emergency department; a review. Aust Emerg Nurs J 2008, 11:72–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Anand KJ: Clinical importance of pain and stress in preterm neonates. Biol Neonate 1998, 73:1–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Bellu R, de Waal KA, Zanini R: Opioids for neonates receiving mechanical ventilation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2005, 1:CD004212.
Carbajal R, Lenclen R, Jugie M, et al.: Morphine does not provide adequate analgesia for acute procedural pain among preterm neonates. Pediatrics 2005, 115:1494–1500.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Anand KJ, Barton BA, McIntosh N, et al.: Analgesia and sedation in preterm neonates who require ventilatory support: results from the NOPAIN trial. Neonatal Outcome and Prolonged Analgesia in Neonates. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 1999, 153:331–338.
Anand KJ, Hall RW, Desai N, et al.: Effects of morphine analgesia in ventilated preterm neonates: primary outcomes from the NEOPAIN randomised trial. Lancet 2004, 363:1673–1682.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Bhandari V, Bergqvist LL, Kronsberg SS, et al.: Morphine administration and short-term pulmonary outcomes among ventilated preterm infants. Pediatrics 2005, 116:352–359.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Harrison D, Loughnan P, Manias E, Johnston L: Utilization of analgesics, sedatives, and pain scores in infants with a prolonged hospitalization: a prospective descriptive cohort study. Int J Nurs Stud 2009, 46:624–632.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Anand KJ, Johnston CC, Oberlander TF, et al.: Analgesia and local anesthesia during invasive procedures in the neonate. Clin Ther 2005, 27:844–876.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Anderson B: Implementation matters: conundrums with acetaminophen use in kids. Special Interest Group on Pain in Childhood, International Association for the Study of Pain Newsletter; March 3–4, 2008.
Roberts E, Harrison D, Johnston L: A prospective clinical audit of paracetamol administration in a neonatal unit. J Paediatr Child Health 2008, 44:A57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Taddio A, Manley J, Potash L, et al.: Routine immunization practices: use of topical anesthetics and oral analgesics. Pediatrics 2007, 120:e637–e643.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Bremerich DH, Neidhart G, Heimann K, et al.: Prophylactically-administered rectal acetaminophen does not reduce postoperative opioid requirements in infants and small children undergoing elective cleft palate repair. Anesth Analg 2001, 92:907–912.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Howard CR, Howard FM, Weitzman ML: Acetaminophen analgesia in neonatal circumcision: the effect on pain. Pediatrics 1994, 93:641–646.PubMedGoogle Scholar
Macke JK: Analgesia for circumcision: effects on newborn behavior and mother/infant interaction. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs 2001, 30:507–514.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
van Lingen RA, Quak CM, Deinum HT, et al.: Effects of rectally administered paracetamol on infants delivered by vacuum extraction. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2001, 94:73–78.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Agrawal S, Fitzsimons JJ, Horn V, Petros A: Intravenous paracetamol for postoperative analgesia in a 4-day-old term neonate. Paediatr Anaesth 2007, 17:70–71.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Prins SA, Van Dijk M, Van Leeuwen P, et al.: Pharmacokinetics and analgesic effects of intravenous propacetamol vs rectal paracetamol in children after major craniofacial surgery. Paediatr Anaesth 2008, 18:582–592.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Wilson-Smith EM, Morton NS: Survey of i.v. paracetamol (acetaminophen) use in neonates and infants under 1 year of age by UK anesthetists. Paediatr Anaesth 2009, 19:329–337.
Prymula R, Siegrist CA, Chlibek R, et al.: Effect of prophylactic paracetamol administration at time of vaccination on febrile reactions and antibody responses in children: two open-label, randomised controlled trials. Lancet 2009, 374:1339–1350.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Dawkins TN, Barclay CA, Gardiner RL, Krawczeski CD: Safety of intravenous use of ketorolac in infants following cardiothoracic surgery. Cardiol Young 2009, 19:105–108.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Akcan E, Yigit R, Atici A: The effect of kangaroo care on pain in premature infants during invasive procedures. Turk J Pediatr 2009, 51:14–18.PubMedGoogle Scholar
de Sousa Freire NB, Santos Garcia JB, Carvalho Lamy Z: Evaluation of analgesic effect of skin-to-skin contact compared to oral glucose in preterm neonates. Pain 2008, 139:28–33.
Johnston CC, Filion F, Campbell-Yeo M, et al.: Enhanced kangaroo mother care for heel lance in preterm neonates: a crossover trial. J Perinatol 2009, 29:51–56.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
•Johnston CC, Filion F, Campbell-Yeo M, et al.: Kangaroo mother care diminishes pain from heel lance in very preterm neonates: a crossover trial. BMC Pediatr 2008, 8:13. This article highlighted that KC effectively reduced pain during heel lancing in very preterm infants, whilst the addition of rocking, singing or talking softly, and non-nutritive sucking concurred no additional pain reduction benefits. Site differences in pain scores were noted in the unit in which sucrose was standard care
Kashaninia Z, Sajedi F, Rahgozar M, Noghabi FA: The effect of Kangaroo Care on behavioral responses to pain of an intramuscular injection in neonates. J Spec Pediatr Nurs 2008, 13:275–280.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Kostandy RR, Ludington-Hoe SM, Cong X, et al.: Kangaroo Care (skin contact) reduces crying response to pain in preterm neonates: pilot results. Pain Manag Nurs 2008, 9:55–65.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Marin Gabriel MA, Lopez Escobar A, Galan Redondo M, et al.: Evaluation of pain in a neonatal intensive care unit during endocrine-metabolic tests. Anales de Pediatria 2008, 69:316–321.
Johnson AN: Factors influencing implementation of kangaroo holding in a Special Care Nursery. MCN Am J Matern Child Nurs 2007, 32:25–29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
Shah PS, Aliwalas LI, Shah V: Breastfeeding or breast milk for procedural pain in neonates. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006, 3:CD004950.
Efe E, Ozer ZC: The use of breast-feeding for pain relief during neonatal immunization injections. Appl Nurs Res 2007, 20:10–16.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
• Abdel Razek A, Az El-Dein N: Effect of breast-feeding on pain relief during infant immunization injections. Int J Nurs Pract 2009, 15:99–104. This study evaluates breastfeeding during immunization in infants up to 12 months of age—the oldest infants included in breastfeeding studies for pain management to date. This article therefore contributes valuable evidence of the efficacy of breastfeeding during early childhood immunizations.
Blass EM, Shide DJ, Zaw-Mon C, Sorrentino J: Mother as shield: differential effects of contact and nursing on pain responsivity in infant rats–evidence for nonopioid mediation. Behav Neurosci 1995, 109:342–353.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Gray L, Miller LW, Philipp BL, Blass EM: Breastfeeding is analgesic in healthy newborns. Pediatrics 2002, 109:590–593.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Blass EM, Blom J: beta-Casomorphin causes hypoalgesia in 10-day-old rats: evidence for central mediation. Pediatr Res 1996, 39:199–203.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Ren K, Blass EM, Zhou Q, Dubner R: Suckling and sucrose ingestion suppress persistent hyperalgesia and spinal Fos expression after forepaw inflammation in infant rats. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1997, 94:1471–1475.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Zanardo V, Nicolussi S, Carlo G, et al.: Beta endorphin concentrations in human milk. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2001, 33:160–164.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Blass EM, Smith BA: Differential effects of sucrose, fructose, glucose, and lactose on crying in 1- to 3-day-old human infants: qualitative and quantitative considerations. Dev Psychol 1992, 28:804–810.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dorea JG: Breastfeeding is an essential complement to vaccination. Acta Paediatr 2009, 98:1244–1250.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Schechter NL, Zempsky WT, Cohen LL, et al.: Pain reduction during pediatric immunizations: evidence-based review and recommendations. Pediatrics 2007, 119:e1184–e1198.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Cepeda MS, Carr DB, Lau J, Alvarez H: Music for pain relief. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006, 2:CD004843.
Hartling L, Shaik MS, Tjosvold L, et al.: Music for medical indications in the neonatal period: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2009, 94:F349–F354.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Ploeg J, Davies B, Edwards N, et al.: Factors influencing best-practice guideline implementation: lessons learned from administrators, nursing staff, and project leaders. Worldviews Evid Based Nurs 2007, 4:210–219.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kitson AL, Rycroft-Malone J, Harvey G, et al.: Evaluating the successful implementation of evidence into practice using the PARiHS framework: theoretical and practical challenges. Implement Sci 2008, 3:1.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Franck LS, Bruce E: Putting pain assessment into practice: why is it so painful? Pain Res Manag 2009, 14:13–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
Harrison D: Implementation matters: pain assessment: not yet normalized practice. Special Interest Group on Pain in Childhood, International Association for the Study of Pain Newsletter; August 4-5, 2009.