Influence of Hormonal Appetite and Energy Regulators on Bone
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- Khor, E.C., Wee, N.K.Y. & Baldock, P.A. Curr Osteoporos Rep (2013) 11: 194. doi:10.1007/s11914-013-0157-0
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Nutritional status is an essential component in determining whole body energy homeostasis. The balance between energy/food intake and metabolism is governed by a range of hormones secreted from various parts of the body. Their subsequent dissemination via the blood results in a wide range of biological responses including satiety, hunger, and glucose uptake. The roles of these systemic hormones also extend to bone regulation with animal and clinical studies establishing a relationship between these regulatory pathways. This review covers the gastrointestinal hormones, ghrelin, PYY, GIP, GLP-1, and GLP-2, and the adipokines, leptin, and adiponectin and their roles in regulating bone homeostasis. Their known actions are reviewed, with an emphasis upon recent advances in understanding. Taken together, this review outlines an expanding appreciation of the interactions between bone mass and the nutritional control of whole body energy balance by gut and adipose tissue.