Current Osteoporosis Reports

, Volume 11, Issue 2, pp 117–125

Functional Impairment of Bone Formation in the Pathogenesis of Osteoporosis: The Bone Marrow Regenerative Competence

  • Joseph P. Bidwell
  • Marta B. Alvarez
  • Mark HoodJr
  • Paul Childress
Skeletal Biology (DB Burr, Section Editor)

DOI: 10.1007/s11914-013-0139-2

Cite this article as:
Bidwell, J.P., Alvarez, M.B., Hood, M. et al. Curr Osteoporos Rep (2013) 11: 117. doi:10.1007/s11914-013-0139-2

Abstract

The skeleton is a high-renewal organ that undergoes ongoing cycles of remodeling. The regenerative bone formation arm ultimately declines in the aging, postmenopausal skeleton, but current therapies do not adequately address this deficit. Bone marrow is the primary source of the skeletal anabolic response and the mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which give rise to bone matrix-producing osteoblasts. The identity of these stem cells is emerging, but it now appears that the term ‘MSC’ has often been misapplied to the bone marrow stromal cell (BMSC), a progeny of the MSC. Nevertheless, the changes in BMSC phenotype associated with age and estrogen depletion likely contribute to the attenuated regenerative competence of the marrow and may reflect alterations in MSC phenotype. Here we summarize current concepts in bone marrow MSC identity, and within this context, review recent observations on changes in bone marrow population dynamics associated with aging and menopause.

Keywords

AgingMesenchymal stem cellsNmp4OsteoblastsOsteoprogenitorsPostmenopause

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joseph P. Bidwell
    • 1
  • Marta B. Alvarez
    • 1
  • Mark HoodJr
    • 1
  • Paul Childress
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Anatomy and Cell BiologyIndiana University School of Medicine (IUSM)IndianapolisUSA