, Volume 10, Issue 2, pp 126-131
Date: 27 Apr 2012

The Interaction of Biological Factors with Mechanical Signals in Bone Adaptation: Recent Developments

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Abstract

Mechanotransduction in bone is fundamental to proper skeletal development. Deficiencies in signaling mechanisms that transduce physical forces to effector cells can have severe consequences for skeletal integrity. Therefore, a solid understanding of the cellular and molecular components of mechanotransduction is crucial for correcting skeletal modeling and remodeling errors and designing effective therapies. In recent years, progress has been made on many fronts regarding our understanding of bone cell mechanotransduction, including subcellular localization of mechanosensitive components in bone cells, the discovery of mechanosensitive G-protein-coupled receptors, identification of new ion channels and larger pores (eg, hemichannels) involved in physical signal transduction, and cell adhesion proteins, among others. These and other recent mechanisms are reviewed to provide a synthesis of recent experimental findings, in the larger context of whole bone adaptation.