Kelly T, Yang W, Chen CS, Reynolds K, He J: Global burden of obesity in 2005 and projections to 2030. Int J Obes (Lond) 2008, 32:1431-1437.CrossRef
Jia H, Lubetkin EI: Obesity-Related Quality-Adjusted Life Years Lost in the U.S. from 1993 to 2008. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2010, 39:220-227.CrossRefPubMed
Calle EE, Rodriguez C, Walker-Thurmond K, Thun MJ: Overweight, obesity, and mortality from cancer in a prospectively studied cohort of U.S. adults. N Engl J Med 2003, 348:1625-1638.CrossRefPubMed
Vainio H, Bianchini F (Eds.): IARC Handbooks of Cancer Prevent--Weight Control and Physical Activity. Lyon, France: IARC Press; 2002.
World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research: Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity, and the Prevention of Cancer: a Global Perspective. Washington DC: AICR; 2007.
Calle EE, Thun MJ: Obesity and cancer. Oncogene 2004, 23:6365-6378.CrossRefPubMed
•• Renehan AG, Tyson M, Egger M, Heller RF, Zwahlen M: Body-mass index and incidence of cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective observational studies. Lancet 2008, 371:569-578. This is a meta-analysis of 221 datasets (282,137 incident cases) from prospective observational studies that extended beyond the 2007 WCRF findings. As BMI increased by 5 kg/m
, strong associations for esophageal carcinoma (RR = 1.52 for men, 1.51 for women) and renal cancer (RR = 1.33 for men, 1.34 for women) in both men and women were observed. Weak, but positive associations were found for leukemia, multiple myeloma, and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma in both men and women.
Polednak AP: Estimating the number of U.S. incident cancers attributable to obesity and the impact on temporal trends in incidence rates for obesity-related cancers. Cancer Detect Prev 2008, 32:190-199.CrossRefPubMed
Renehan AG, Soerjomataram I, Tyson M, et al.: Incident cancer burden attributable to excess body mass index in 30 European countries. Int J Cancer 2010, 126:692-702.CrossRefPubMed
• Prospective Studies Collaboration: Body-mass index and cause-specific mortality in 900 000 adults: collaborative analyses of 57 Prospective studies. Lancet 2009, 373:1083-1096. These are updated results on mortality and increased BMI, which include cancer mortality. The data came from 57 prospective studies, which includes approximately 900,000 adults. As BMI increased by 5 kg/m
, it was associated with a ~ 30% increase of all-cause mortality (HR = 1.29, 95% CI = 1.27–1.32). Specifically for cancer, all-cancer mortality indicated a 10% increase (HR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.06–1.15) as BMI increases by 5 kg/m
Picot J, Jones J, Colquitt JL, et al.: The clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of bariatric (weight loss) surgery for obesity: a systematic review and economic evaluation. Health Technol Assess 2009, 13:1-190, 215-357, iii-iv.
•• Sjöström L, Gummesson A, Sjöström CD, et al.: Effects of bariatric surgery on cancer incidence in obese patients in Sweden (Swedish Obese Subjects Study): a prospective, controlled intervention trial. The Lancet Oncology 2009, 10:653-662. This is a prospective Swedish study of cancer incidence in 2010 obese patients who underwent bariatric surgery compared to 2037 matched obese controls who received conventional weight loss treatment. During the ~ 11-year average follow-up, 117 surgery patients and 169 controls developed a new cancer (HR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.53–0.85, P = 0.0009).
• Adams TD, Stroup AM, Gress RE, et al.: Cancer incidence and mortality after gastric bypass surgery. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2009, 17:796-802. This is a study of cancer incidence and mortality in 6596 patients who had gastric bypass surgery compared to 9442 severely obese controls from the state’s driver’s license records. With an average follow-up time of 12.45 years, the surgery group had a lower incidence of regional or distant-stage cancer, and lower cancer mortality than controls.
Trentham-Dietz A, Nichols HB, Hampton JM, Newcomb PA: Weight change and risk of endometrial cancer. Int J Epidemiol 2006, 35:151-158.CrossRefPubMed
Eliassen AH, Colditz GA, Rosner B, et al.: Adult weight change and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. JAMA 2006, 296:193-201.CrossRefPubMed
Kawai M, Minami Y, Kuriyama S, et al.: Adiposity, adult weight change and breast cancer risk in postmenopausal Japanese women: the Miyagi Cohort Study. Br J Cancer 2010.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services NIoH, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases: Clinical Guidelines on the Identification, Evaluation, and Treatment of Overweight and Obesity in Adults: The Evidence Report (NIH Publication No. 98-4083); 1998:262.
Brown T, Avenell A, Edmunds LD, et al.: Systematic review of long-term lifestyle interventions to prevent weight gain and morbidity in adults. Obes Rev 2009, 10:627-638.CrossRefPubMed
Sarwer DB, von Sydow Green A, Vetter ML, Wadden TA: Behavior therapy for obesity: where are we now? Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes 2009, 16:347-352.PubMed
McTigue KM, Harris R, Hemphill B, et al.: Screening and interventions for obesity in adults: summary of the evidence for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Ann Intern Med 2003, 139:933-949.PubMed
• Roberts DL, Dive C, Renehan AG: Biological mechanisms linking obesity and cancer risk: new perspectives. Annu Rev Med 2010, 61:301-316. This provides a review on well-studied biological mechanisms for obesity and cancer, and provides additional hypotheses and possible mechanisms that may need to be further examined.
•• Nock NL, Berger NA: Obesity and Cancer: Overview of Mechanisms. In Cancer and Energy Balance, Epidemiology and Overview. Edited by Berger NA. New York: Springer; 2010: 129-179. This provides a comprehensive summary of all plausible biological mechanisms that explained the positive association between obesity and various cancers.
Calle EE, Kaaks R: Overweight, obesity and cancer: epidemiological evidence and proposed mechanisms. Nat Rev Cancer 2004, 4:579-591.CrossRefPubMed
Sridhar SS, Goodwin PJ: Insulin-insulin-like growth factor axis and colon cancer. J Clin Oncol 2009, 27:165-167.CrossRefPubMed
Rowlands MA, Gunnell D, Harris R, et al.: Circulating insulin-like growth factor peptides and prostate cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Cancer 2009, 124:2416-2429.CrossRefPubMed
The Endogenous Hormones and Breast Cancer Collaborative Group: Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1), IGF binding protein 3 (IGFBP3), and breast cancer risk: pooled individual data analysis of 17 prospective studies. The Lancet Oncology 2010, 11:530-542.CrossRef
Major JM, Stolzenberg-Solomon RZ, Pollak MN, et al.: Insulin-like growth factors and liver cancer risk in male smokers. Br J Cancer 2010, 103:1089-1092.CrossRefPubMed
Gu F, Schumacher FR, Canzian F, et al.: Eighteen Insulin-like Growth Factor (IGF) pathway genes, circulating levels of IGF-1 and its binding protein (IGFBP-3), and risk of prostate and breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2010, In Press, Uncorrected Proof. Epub 2010 Sept 03.
van Kruijsdijk RC, van der Wall E, Visseren FL: Obesity and cancer: the role of dysfunctional adipose tissue. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2009, 18:2569-2578.CrossRefPubMed
Birmingham JM, Busik JV, Hansen-Smith FM, Fenton JI: Novel mechanism for obesity-induced colon cancer progression. Carcinogenesis 2009, 30:690-697.CrossRefPubMed
Hursting SD, Berger NA: Energy balance, host-related factors, and cancer progression. J Clin Oncol 2010, 28:4058-4065.CrossRefPubMed
Zhang Y, Daquinag A, Traktuev DO, et al.: White adipose tissue cells are recruited by experimental tumors and promote cancer progression in mouse models. Cancer Res 2009, 69:5259-5266.CrossRefPubMed
Erlinger TP, Platz EA, Rifai N, Helzlsouer KJ: C-reactive protein and the risk of incident colorectal cancer. JAMA 2004, 291:585-590.CrossRefPubMed
Zhang SM, Buring JE, Lee IM, et al.: C-reactive protein levels are not associated with increased risk for colorectal cancer in women. Ann Intern Med 2005, 142:425-432.PubMed
Greten FR, Eckmann L, Greten TF, et al.: IKK[beta] Links Inflammation and Tumorigenesis in a Mouse Model of Colitis-Associated Cancer. Cell 2004, 118:285-296.CrossRefPubMed
Reuter S, Gupta SC, Chaturvedi MM, Aggarwal BB: Oxidative stress, inflammation, and cancer: How are they linked? Free Radical Biology and Medicine 2010, In Press, Uncorrected Proof. Epub 2010 Sept 06.
Gago-Dominguez M, Castelao JE, Yuan JM, et al.: Lipid peroxidation: a novel and unifying concept of the etiology of renal cell carcinoma (United States). Cancer Causes Control 2002, 13:287-293.CrossRefPubMed