, Volume 6, Issue 2, pp 88-95

Antitumor applications of stimulating toll-like receptor 9 with CpG oligodeoxynucleotides

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Tumor immunotherapy has evolved from the use of crude bacterial extracts to chemically synthesized ligands for specific immune receptors, such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs). One of the most promising targets for therapeutic immune activation is TLR9, which detects unmethylated CpG dinucleotides present in viral and prokaryotic genomes, which are generally methylated in host DNA. This review describes the immune effects of synthetic CpG oligonucleotides as TLR9 ligands and their applications in cancer immunotherapy.