Inflammation and Immune System Activation After Traumatic Brain Injury

Neurotrauma (J Levine, Section Editor)

DOI: 10.1007/s11910-014-0484-2

Cite this article as:
Balu, R. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep (2014) 14: 484. doi:10.1007/s11910-014-0484-2
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Neurotrauma


Treatment options for managing traumatic brain injury remain limited. Therapies that limit the development of secondary brain injury—the delayed injury that can occur days to weeks after initial presentation—would have a major impact on outcomes and reduce the medical, social, and economic burden of this devastating disease. A growing body of evidence suggests that inflammation and activation of the immune system is a central driver of secondary brain injury. This article reviews the evidence for inflammation mediating secondary injury after head trauma and outlines potential approaches for immunomodulatory therapies after traumatic brain injury.


InflammationTraumatic brain injuryMicrogliaDamage-associated molecular patternsCytokinePattern recognition receptor

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Neurocritical Care, Department of Neurology, Perelman School of MedicineUniversity of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA