Advances in Epigenetics and Epigenomics for Neurodegenerative Diseases

Article

DOI: 10.1007/s11910-011-0210-2

Cite this article as:
Qureshi, I.A. & Mehler, M.F. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep (2011) 11: 464. doi:10.1007/s11910-011-0210-2

Abstract

In the post-genomic era, epigenetic factors—literally those that are “over” or “above” genetic ones and responsible for controlling the expression and function of genes—have emerged as important mediators of development and aging; gene-gene and gene-environmental interactions; and the pathophysiology of complex disease states. Here, we provide a brief overview of the major epigenetic mechanisms (ie, DNA methylation, histone modifications and chromatin remodeling, and non-coding RNA regulation). We highlight the nearly ubiquitous profiles of epigenetic dysregulation that have been found in Alzheimer’s and other neurodegenerative diseases. We also review innovative methods and technologies that enable the characterization of individual epigenetic modifications and more widespread epigenomic states at high resolution. We conclude that, together with complementary genetic, genomic, and related approaches, interrogating epigenetic and epigenomic profiles in neurodegenerative diseases represent important and increasingly practical strategies for advancing our understanding of and the diagnosis and treatment of these disorders.

Keywords

Alzheimer’s diseaseAmyotrophic lateral sclerosisChromatinDNA methylationEpigeneticsEpigenomicsHistone modificationHuntington’s diseaseNeurodegenerative diseaseNext generation sequencingNon-coding RNAParkinson’s disease

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Rosyln and Leslie Goldstein Laboratory for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative MedicineAlbert Einstein College of MedicineBronxUSA
  2. 2.Institute for Brain Disorders and Neural RegenerationAlbert Einstein College of MedicineBronxUSA
  3. 3.Department of NeurologyAlbert Einstein College of MedicineBronxUSA
  4. 4.Department of NeuroscienceAlbert Einstein College of MedicineBronxUSA
  5. 5.Psychiatry and Behavioral SciencesAlbert Einstein College of MedicineBronxUSAc
  6. 6.Rose F. Kennedy Center for Research on Intellectual and Developmental DisabilitiesAlbert Einstein College of MedicineBronxUSA
  7. 7.Albert Einstein College of MedicineRose F. Kennedy CenterBronxUSA