An Update on Psychogenic Movement Disorders
First Online: 11 May 2011 DOI:
Cite this article as: Ellenstein, A., Kranick, S.M. & Hallett, M. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep (2011) 11: 396. doi:10.1007/s11910-011-0205-z Abstract
Psychogenic movement disorders (PMD) and other conversion disorders (CD) with apparent neurologic signs (neurologic CD) plague patients and perplex physicians. Due to a lack of objective evidence of underlying brain lesions, CD were largely abandoned by neurologists and remained poorly understood psychiatric diagnoses throughout most of the 20th century. Modern neuroscience now supports increasingly comprehensive biological models for these complex disorders, definitively establishing their place in both neurology and psychiatry. Although it is often clinically useful to distinguish a movement disorder as either “organic” or “psychogenic,” this dichotomy is difficult to defend scientifically. Here we describe the neuroimaging and neurophysiologic evidence for dysfunctional neural networks in PMD, explain the diagnostic potential of clinical neurophysiologic testing, discuss the promising if increasingly complex role of neuropsychiatric genetics, and review current treatment strategies.
Keywords Movement disorder Psychogenic Motor conversion Somatoform disorder Dissociative disorder Functional disorder Medically unexplained Hysterical Neurologic symptom Diagnostic technique References Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance
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